Conditions for Grant of Copyright in India: A Comprehensive Guide

Conditions for Grant of Copyright

Copyright protection grants creators exclusive rights over their original works and is an important incentive for innovation and creativity. However, copyright in India is not automatic and requires certain conditions to be fulfilled.

This comprehensive guide examines the key conditions for obtaining copyright registration in India. It provides clarity on copyright eligibility, statutory requirements, and the works that cannot be copyrighted.

With insights from legal experts and real-world examples, this guide empowers creators to make informed decisions and fully leverage copyright law in India.

Copyright is a legal right granted to creators of original literary, dramatic, musical and artistic works like books, music, paintings, sculpture, and films. The Indian Copyright Act 1957 provides the creator exclusive rights to reproduce, publish, sell or translate their work.

Copyright protection gives creators control over how their work is used and prevents others from copying or exploiting it without permission. It allows creators to benefit financially from their intellectual effort and creativity.

Copyright comes into effect automatically when a work is created and no formality is required for acquiring it. However, registration of copyright offers additional legal benefits and protections.

While copyright subsists automatically, registration offers numerous advantages:

  • Establishes proof of ownership: Registration serves as evidence of your ownership in case of infringement disputes.
  • Enhances enforcement: Registration is required for filing infringement lawsuits in a court of law.
  • Deters plagiarism: Registering copyright acts as a public notice that deters unauthorized use of your work.
  • Access to remedies: Registration enables you to claim statutory damages and attorney’s fees in infringement lawsuits.
  • Easier licensing and transfers: Registration simplifies the process of granting licenses or transferring ownership rights.
  • International protection: Registration in India can facilitate obtaining protection in other countries.

Experts strongly recommend copyright registration as it strengthens your ability to enforce your rights and seek remedies under law.

A wide range of original works are eligible for copyright registration in India:

  • Literary works like novels, poems, short stories, textbooks, computer programs and databases.
  • Artistic works including paintings, drawings, photographs, sculpture, architecture, maps, logos and illustrations.
  • Dramatic works such as choreography, scripts and plays.
  • Musical works like songs, instrumental music, and musical compositions.
  • Sound recordings of songs, lectures, speeches or other recordings.
  • Cinematographic films and videos.
  • Computer software programs.

Any original work that is the result of creative skill and intellectual effort and not merely a copy of an existing work can be registered, provided other eligibility criteria are met. Factual or commonplace works may not fulfill originality requirements.

For a work to enjoy copyright protection in India, it must comply with certain conditions:

Originality Requirement

The work must be original and not a copy of another work. It should originate from the author and represent their creative output. Works that are derivative or not significantly unique cannot be copyrighted.

For instance, a new song composition demonstrates originality, while merely changing the lyrics of an existing song may not meet the originality bar.

Tangible Form Requirement

The work must be fixed in a tangible medium of expression, like text on paper or an audio recording. Ideas, concepts or procedures that are not expressed in tangible form cannot be copyrighted.

For example, a novel printed in a book can be copyrighted but not the idea for the novel.

Citizenship Criteria

  • For unpublished works, the author must be a citizen of India at the time of their death.
  • For published works, the author must be an Indian citizen at the date of first publication. This applies to works first published in India.

These requirements ensure copyright protection benefits creators with Indian citizenship.

First Publication Criteria

The work must be published for the first time to get copyright. Works already published previously either in India or abroad are not eligible.

First publication implies the work is made available to the public for the first time through print, digital publication, public performance, etc.

For instance, a music album released publicly now is eligible for copyright versus one already published.

Meeting these conditions allows creators to apply for copyright registration in India. Additionally, compliance with formalities like providing a complete application, fees and depositing copies is required.

Works That Cannot Be Copyrighted

There are certain categories of work that are not protected under copyright law:

Ideas and Procedures

Abstract ideas, concepts, principles, or methods by themselves cannot be copyrighted. Copyright law only protects the expression of ideas and not the ideas themselves.

For example, you cannot copyright the idea or concept for a documentary. But you can copyright the actual documentary content that expresses the idea.

Facts and Information

Factual information like news, historical events, natural or scientific discoveries, and other data are not eligible for copyright. Copyright does not control information itself.

For instance, you cannot copyright a phone directory or calendar since they contain common factual data. But creative expression of facts like a biography can be protected.

Commonly Used Things

Familiar symbols, common designs, everyday items and trivial content lack the originality needed for copyright registration.

For example, standard formats like tables, schedules or commonly used icons cannot be copyrighted.

Works in the Public Domain

Works whose copyright term has expired are in the public domain and hence cannot be copyrighted anew. This includes works freely licensed for public use.

For instance, Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet is now in the public domain and cannot be copyrighted as a new work.

Only the original selection, arrangement or expression of public domain content can be copyrighted, not the content itself.

To register a copyright, you must submit an application to the Copyright Office in the prescribed format along with the required fee.

The application must provide details like name and address of the copyright claimant, type of work, year of publication, and a copy of the work.

Once your eligibility is verified, you will receive a copyright registration certificate, typically within 1-2 months. This certificate serves as prima facie evidence of your copyright ownership.

You can also register multiple works through a single application under certain conditions and deposit an identifying portion instead of the full work. The Copyright Office also facilitates tracking applications and communicating with applicants online.

Copyright is infringed when someone uses the protected work without permission from the owner. This could involve unauthorized reproduction, distribution, public display, commercial exploitation, or derivative works based on the original.

Infringement is a punishable offence under the Copyright Act. On conviction, penalties include imprisonment of 6 months to 3 years along with a minimum fine of ₹50,000.

In civil lawsuits, remedies like injunctions, damages, account of profits, and seizure of infringing copies are available. Enhanced penalties can be levied on repeat offenders.


Copyright registration unlocks several benefits under Indian law for creators of literary and artistic works. By satisfying key originality, citizenship, tangibility and publication requirements, authors can obtain legal protection for their creativity.

Understanding copyright eligibility also clarifies what cannot be protected, like ideas, facts or public domain content. Securing copyright fosters innovation and balances public access with protecting creators’ interests.

Consult experts like to ensure your work meets copyright standards in India before application. Their team can also help navigate the registration process for efficiency and thorough compliance.

Leverage copyright law to control use of your original works and curb misuse. A registered copyright deters infringement and strengthens your ability to protect your creative investment.


Copyright generally subsists for 60 years after the author’s death. For works with joint authors or unknown authors (like companies), it lasts 60 years from publication date.

No. Once registered, copyright protection is valid for the entire duration without any need for renewals.

Yes, original blog posts constitute literary works that can be copyrighted provided other requirements are met. However, short or factual posts may lack sufficient creativity.

Is permission needed to use copyrighted content?

Yes, unless the use falls under fair dealing exceptions, express permission from copyright holders is required for reproducing, distributing or modifying a copyrighted work.

Key benefits include establishment of ownership, enhanced enforcement and remedies, deterrence against infringement, simplified licensing and international protection.

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