When Should TDS be Deducted and By Whom in India?

Demystifying TDS Deductions: When and By Whom Should Tax be Deducted at Source in India?


Tax Deducted at Source (TDS) is a crucial component of India’s tax ecosystem, ensuring that a portion of the tax due on income is collected upfront. While the concept of TDS is well-established, many individuals and businesses often find themselves grappling with the question of when and by whom TDS should be deducted. In this comprehensive article, we’ll shed light on these crucial aspects, equipping you with the knowledge to navigate the intricate world of TDS deductions like a pro.

When Should TDS be Deducted?

The Income Tax Act, 1961, provides a comprehensive list of payments that are subject to TDS deductions. However, the general principle is that TDS should be deducted at the time of making specified payments to the recipients. These payments include, but are not limited to:

  • Salary payments by employers (Section 192)
  • Interest payments by banks and financial institutions (Sections 193 and 194A)
  • Rent payments for immovable properties (Section 194-I)
  • Professional fees or commission payments (Sections 194J and 194H)
  • Payments to contractors or sub-contractors (Section 194C)
  • Payments for the purchase of immovable property (Section 194-IA)
  • Winnings from lotteries, crossword puzzles, card games, etc. (Section 194B)
  • Income from online gaming (Section 194BA – new provision introduced in Budget 2023)

It’s important to note that the timing of TDS deduction may vary depending on the nature of the payment. For instance, TDS on salary is typically deducted at the time of payment, while TDS on rent or purchase of immovable property may be deducted within 30 days from the end of the month in which the deduction was made.

By Whom Should TDS be Deducted?

The responsibility of deducting TDS lies with the person or entity making the specified payment, commonly referred to as the “deductor.” This can include:

  • Employers (for TDS on salary)
  • Banks and financial institutions (for TDS on interest)
  • Companies, firms, or individuals (for TDS on rent, professional fees, commission, etc.)
  • Buyers of immovable property (for TDS on property purchase)
  • Lottery or game organizers (for TDS on winnings)

It’s important to note that certain exceptions apply to individuals and Hindu Undivided Families (HUFs) whose books are not required to be audited. In such cases, TDS may not be required to be deducted for certain payments, subject to specific conditions.

Obtaining a Tax Deduction Account Number (TAN):

Most deductors are required to obtain a Tax Deduction Account Number (TAN) from the Income Tax Department. This unique identification number is used for depositing TDS and filing TDS returns. However, there are exceptions where deductors can use their Permanent Account Number (PAN) instead of a TAN, such as for TDS on rent payments by individuals or HUFs (Section 194-IB) and TDS on certain payments by individuals or HUFs (Section 194M).

Rates of TDS:

The rates of TDS deduction vary depending on the nature of the payment and the recipient’s residency status. For instance, TDS on salary is deducted at the average rate of income tax applicable to the employee, while TDS on interest from banks is typically deducted at a flat rate of 10%. In cases where the deductee does not furnish their PAN, TDS may be deducted at higher rates, as per Section 206AA of the Income Tax Act.

Consequences of Non-Compliance:

Failure to deduct TDS when required, deposit the deducted amount with the government, file TDS returns, or issue TDS certificates can attract interest, penalties, and even prosecution in severe cases. It’s crucial for deductors to maintain accurate records, adhere to due dates, and seek professional assistance when necessary to ensure seamless TDS compliance.


Understanding when and by whom TDS should be deducted is a critical aspect of tax compliance in India. By adhering to the guidelines set forth in the Income Tax Act and following the prescribed procedures, individuals and businesses can contribute to the efficient functioning of the nation’s tax system while avoiding potential penalties and legal consequences.

At Filingwala.com, we recognize the complexities involved in TDS deductions and offer comprehensive services to guide you through the process. Our team of experts can assist you in identifying TDS-applicable payments, calculating the correct deduction rates, obtaining a TAN, and ensuring timely deposits and filings. Visit www.filingwala.com or contact us today to learn more about how we can support you in mastering the art of TDS deductions and achieving tax excellence.

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