The Complete Guide to Patentability Criteria in India [2024 Update]

Everything You Need to Know About Obtaining a Patent in India

Gain a competitive edge for your inventions. Understand patentability criteria in India with this comprehensive 3500+ word guide.

Patentability Criteria

Have you created an extraordinary new invention? Are you wondering how to secure exclusive rights for your intellectual property in India?

Obtaining a patent in India can be tricky without understanding the patentability requirements and process.

This extensive guide covers all key aspects of patents in India:

Let’s start with a brief background on intellectual property rights and patents in India.

Introduction to Patents in India

India has a robust legal framework around intellectual property rights including patents, trademarks, copyrights, and industrial designs.

The Indian Patents Act of 1970, amended in 2002, 2005 and recently in 2022, governs patents in India. This Act outlines the patentability criteria, application process, and rights of patent holders.

According to the Act, a patent gives the creator an exclusive right over the invented product or process for a limited period of 20 years.

This enables the inventor to reap commercial benefits from the innovation by preventing others from copying it.

Patent protection promotes innovation and technology advancement in a country. It enables companies to reap returns on their R&D investments and acts as an incentive to compete on innovations.

However, the patentability criteria are stringent to ensure that trivial innovations do not get patented. An invention has to be substantially innovative and non-obvious to get patent protection.

India aims to balance public interest and preventing evergreening of patents with promoting genuine innovation through its patent regulations.

Having a patented technology or product differentiates you from competitors and attracts investors, apart from safeguarding your exclusive rights.

Objectives of Patent Protection

Before we get into India’s patentability criteria, let us look at why inventors and companies pursue patent protection:

  • Monetary gains – Patents enable the inventor to earn from their innovation by preventing others from commercially using it without consent. Licensing or assigning the patent rights can generate significant revenues.
  • Exclusive rights – A patent grants the holder the exclusive rights to commercially exploit the patented invention for 20 years. Others need to obtain a license or face infringement penalties.
  • Competitive edge – Companies with patented technologies have an edge over competitors who must either license the patent or invest resources into developing alternate technologies.
  • Attract investment – A strong patent portfolio demonstrates an innovator’s technical capabilities. Venture capital and equity investors often consider patents as an asset.
  • Prevent copying – Patents deter others from copying an invention and eroding the creator’s competitive position. Potential infringers may have to obtain a license or find alternative solutions.
  • Enhancing company value – IP portfolios including patents increase a company’s net worth and valuation during acquisitions or public listing.
  • Incentivizing innovation – Patent protection fosters a culture of innovation within companies and motivates investment into cutting-edge R&D.

With these benefits in mind, let us look at the process of applying for a patent in India.

Types of Patent Applications in India

Under the Indian Patents Act, you can file for these types of patent applications:

  • Ordinary Application – This standard application is for applicants who have not already filed in other countries. You submit details of the invention without claiming priority date.
  • Convention Application – If you have first applied for a patent for the same invention in a convention country, you can file this application within 12 months to claim priority.
  • PCT International Application – For patenting an invention in multiple countries, you can begin with a single international application under the PCT (Patent Cooperation Treaty).
  • PCT National Phase Application – This application enters the national phase when you pursue patent grant in specific PCT member countries like India. The application must be made within 31 months of your priority date.
  • Patent of Addition – If you wish to improve or modify your already patented invention, you can apply for a patent of addition.
  • Divisional Application – In case your original patent application claims multiple inventions, you can pursue divisional applications for each invention while retaining your priority date.

Thoroughly review the types of applications to determine the right fit for your needs. Our patent filing experts at Filingwala can also guide you on selecting the optimal application strategy.

Now let’s look at the benefits and potential drawbacks of patenting your invention.

Advantages of Obtaining a Patent in India

  • 20 years of exclusive rights – Patents enable you to exclude others from commercially exploiting your invention for up to 20 years from the patent application date. This provides adequate time to build your competitive edge.
  • Stronger legal position – You can file lawsuits for damages against any entity infringing upon your patented technology. A patent strengthens your legal position.
  • Higher valuation – Patents add to your intellectual property assets. This increases the net worth and valuation of your company, making it more lucrative for investors or acquirers.
  • Revenue generation – You can earn revenues by licensing the patent rights to interested parties. Assigning the patent can also provide financial gains.
  • Competitive edge – Your patented product or process is legally protected from copying. Competitors must innovate with alternate technologies giving you a competitive advantage.
  • Attract investors – Securing patents demonstrates your technological innovation capabilities and IP assets. This makes your company appealing to venture capitalists and equity funds providers for financing.
  • Incentivizing R&D – Patent protection encourages allocation of resources towards pioneering research leading to new technologies and scientific advances.

However, patents also have some drawbacks:

  • High application and maintenance costs – The entire patenting process from drafting to registration involves substantial expense in attorney fees and other charges. Annually renewing patents also costs money.
  • No guarantee of success – A patent application can get rejected after you’ve invested significant time and money into it. Even approved patents may not translate into commercial success.
  • Geographical limitations – Patent rights are limited to national or regional jurisdictions. You may need to apply for patents in multiple countries.
  • Infringement risks – Your patent can still be copied or infringed upon illegally. Defending your IP worldwide requires great effort and expense.
  • Disclosure risks – The public disclosure of your invention during the patenting process can enable others to understand and possibly replicate aspects of it.
  • Lengthy process – It typically takes 3-5 years for a patent application to result in approval, blocking any enforcement of rights during that period.

Weigh both the advantages and disadvantages before deciding whether to patent your invention in India. Your decision may also depend on how novel and commercially promising the invention is.

Now let’s get into the patentability criteria you must fulfil for approval.

Criteria for Patentability in India

India has stringent eligibility criteria to ensure that patents are only granted for substantive innovations and not frivolous improvements.

For an invention to be patentable under the Indian Patents Act, it must satisfy these three essential criteria:

1. Novelty

Your invention must be new and novel compared to existing knowledge and public domain.

  • It should not be anticipated by prior publication or commercial use anywhere in the world.
  • You need to demonstrate that no prior art exists disclosing the invention.
  • Section 2(1)(l) of the Patents Act explains the novelty requirement for patentability.
  • The invention should not form part of public knowledge or public use in any manner before your patent application date. This includes written or oral disclosures, sales, trade or use by others.
  • Absolute worldwide novelty is required. Known use of the invention in any geography will invalidate your claim to novelty in India.

Essentially, you must prove your invention has never been known, published, described or used publicly before filing for the patent. It should not resemble existing art in the field.

Absolute novelty is difficult to establish given expanding global information access. Thorough prior art searching before application submission is crucial.

2. Non-Obviousness

Mere novelty is inadequate. Your invention should involve an inventive step compared to existing knowledge in the field.

  • It should be non-obvious to an ordinary person skilled in the art. Someone with reasonable skills in that technological field should not be able to easily deduce or derive your invention just by combining existing prior art.
  • As per Section 2(1)(ja) of the Patents Act, inventive step means a feature that makes the invention not obvious to a person skilled in the art.
  • The test for non-obviousness is whether a technically skilled person would have arrived at the invention by combining previous existing art.
  • If the invention can be construed as an obvious permutation, combination or extension of known art, it lacks an inventive step.
  • Your application must clearly articulate the problem your invention solves and demonstrate the non-obvious inventive step compared to prevailing knowledge.
  • Non-obviousness prevents trivial extensions of existing art from getting patented, thereby improving the quality of patents.

3. Industrial Applicability

Besides novelty and inventiveness, your invention should be capable of industrial application and provide utility.

  • It must be technologically feasible and producible on an industrial scale.
  • The invention’s practical applicability and potential use in trade or industry must be established.
  • Section 2(1)(ac) clarifies that industrial applicability means an invention which can be made or used in an industry.
  • The patent application should disclose the practical application of the invention through examples or sound reasoning.
  • Frivolous or useless innovations with no industrial or commercial value cannot be patented. The invention’s utility must be proven.
  • Scientific theories, purely intellectual principles, aesthetic creations, etc. that cannot be applied in manufacturing do not qualify as inventions as per Indian patent law.

Only innovations that are novel, non-obvious, and industrially applicable are eligible for patents as per sections 2(1) and 3 of the Indian Patents Act.

Besides these primary criteria, you must ensure your invention does not fall under non-patentable subject matter.

Non-Patentable Inventions

Even if an invention satisfies the main criteria, a patent cannot be granted in India if the subject matter falls under these categories:

  • Frivolous and mere discovery of scientific principles or formulations
  • Algorithms and computer programs per se
  • Business methods and mathematical or mental processes
  • Literary, dramatic, musical, or artistic works for aesthetics
  • Mere discovery of new properties or uses of known substances
  • Admixture (simple combinations or mixtures) of known components
  • Methods of agriculture and horticulture
  • Traditional medicinal knowledge or biological processes for producing plants/animals
  • Atomic energy inventions
  • Inventions against public order or morality or injurious to human, animal or plant life.

Further, Section 3(d) clarifies that a new form or derivative of a known substance that does not significantly enhance efficacy cannot be patented.

This prevents incremental innovations from getting patented easily, unless the efficacy is substantially improved versus known substances.

India adopted product patents in pharmaceuticals only from 2005. Section 3(d) ensures patent quality by requiring true drug innovation and preventing evergreening of patents through minor chemical variations.

With the criteria and exclusions clear, let us now look at the step-by-step process for obtaining a patent in India.

Patent Application Process in India

Follow these key steps for drafting and submitting your patent application:

Step 1) Invent and Document

  • Invent your unique product, technology or process through innovation. Maintain detailed records and evidence during the conception and prototyping stages.

Step 2) Conduct Prior Art Search

  • Thoroughly research existing public knowledge, patents and technologies in your field of invention. Analyze similarities or differences to evaluate novelty.

Step 3) Draft Patent Application

  • Disclose your invention’s complete details in the application including title, description, claims, drawings, sequence listings, etc. Demonstrate novelty, inventiveness and utility.

Step 4) Submit Application

  • File the prescribed forms along with required documents and fees at the appropriate patent office. Engage a patent attorney for expert drafting and filing services.

Step 5) Examination by Patent Office

  • The application undergoes formal and substantive examination. Queries may be raised that require timely response.

Step 6) Publication in Patent Office Journal

  • If your application succeeds initial examination, it gets published in the journal typically within 18 months of application. Opposition can be filed at this stage.

Step 7) Grant of Patent

  • After hearing oppositions, if your application meets all criteria, a Letters Patent is granted with specific claims defining your invention.

Step 8) Commercialize the Invention

  • On grant of patent, you can license or assign rights to interested parties, undertake production and sales, or leverage it towards financing for commercialization.

The entire process usually takes 3-5 years from initial filing to grant. Maintain confidentiality before filing the application to avoid disclosing invention details.

Engage an experienced patent attorney or IP firm like Filingwala for end-to-end assistance with documentation, application drafting, submission, office proceedings and patent grant.

Next, let’s look at how an interested party can oppose a published patent application to prevent grant.

Opposing a Patent Application in India

Once an application gets published after 18 months, any person can present a pre-grant opposition on limited grounds:

  • Wrongful obtainment – The invention was wrongfully obtained from the opponent prior to application.
  • Prior publication – The invention was disclosed in a prior publication before the claimed priority date.
  • Public use – The invention was publicly known or used in India before the priority date.
  • Obviousness – The invention lacks inventive step and is obvious to experts in that field.
  • Section 3 inventions – The subject matter is among non-patentable inventions listed under Section 3.
  • Insufficient description – The application does not sufficiently describe the invention to enable reproduction by a skilled person.
  • Foreign application – Non-disclosure of the fact that a foreign application exists for the same invention.
  • Convention application delay – Failure to apply in India within 12 months from first foreign application.

The opponent must provide supporting evidence like documentation of prior publication or use to validate the grounds for opposition.

If the opposition is accepted as valid by the Controller, the application will get refused. Otherwise, the patent can proceed towards grant after such oppositions are heard and resolved.

With the context of Indian regulations covered, let us look at global patenting practices.

Patent Regimes in Major Countries

Patent law is territorial in nature. The exclusive rights conferred by a patent remain limited to the jurisdiction it is granted in.

Here is a snapshot of patenting timeframes, validity and other aspects across some major economies:

United States of America

  • Patent granted for 20 years from application filing date
  • Requires worldwide novelty for patentability
  • Patent application published typically after 18 months
  • Entire process can take approx. 2 – 5 years
  • Utility patents, design patents and plant patents


  • European patents are centrally applied for and granted via European Patent Office (EPO)
  • Once approved, needs to be validated in designated countries to be effective there
  • 20 years validity from filing date
  • Novelty, inventive step and industrial applicability requirement
  • Oppositions can be filed after grant

United Kingdom

  • Patent validity of up to 20 years from filing date
  • Demonstrate novelty, inventive step, and industrial applicability
  • Oppositions can be made against UK patents within 9 months of grant


  • Invention patents granted for 20 years from filing date
  • Utility model and design patents for shorter terms
  • Mandatory disclosure within 6 months of any corresponding foreign patent applications
  • Substantive examination done on request after initial filing


  • Patent term of 20 years from filing date
  • Voluntary purpose-limited patent system introduced in 2015 for promoting licensing and technology transfer
  • Oppositions allowed within 6 months of patent publication

While the criteria are broadly similar worldwide, nuances exist across jurisdictions regarding non-patentable subject matter, demonstration of inventive step, opposition mechanisms, etc.

Consult experienced global IP advisors like Filingwala when seeking multi-country patent protection.

Now let’s examine some noteworthy Indian court rulings regarding patent disputes and infringement cases.

Landmark Judgments on Patentability and Disputes in India

Over the years, Indian courts have passed important judgments interpreting various aspects of patent law and resolving contentious IP disputes.

Here are some landmark cases and implications:

Bajaj Auto Ltd vs TVS Motor Company Ltd (2009)

  • Bajaj sued TVS alleging infringement of their patented ‘DTS-i’ engine technology.
  • Madras High Court upheld the validity of Bajaj’s patent and restrained TVS from using the infringing technology.
  • Prevented unauthorized commercial exploitation of patented inventions. Upholds exclusive rights provided by patent law.

Novartis AG vs Union of India (2013)

  • Novartis was denied a patent in India for the anti-cancer drug Glivec by the Indian Patent Office and Intellectual Property Appellate Board (IPAB).
  • The Supreme Court ruled that Glivec was a modified form of a known substance without significantly improved efficacy, hence not patentable under Section 3(d) of Indian Patents Act.
  • This set a precedent against evergreening and for strict standards of novelty and inventiveness for pharmaceutical patents.

Ericsson vs Micromax (2013)

  • Ericsson sued Micromax for infringing its patents over technologies used for 2G and 3G data communications.
  • The Delhi High Court imposed an interim royalty rate of the patented technologies used by Micromax, pending final resolution of the infringement claim.
  • Reinforced the rights of original patent holders to obtain royalties from licensees and sue infringing parties.

F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd. & Anr vs Cipla (2012)

  • Cipla launched a generic version of Roche’s patented anti-cancer drug Tarceva in India before the patent expiry.
  • Delhi High Court granted an interim injunction restraining Cipla from manufacturing or selling the drug during Roche’s patent term.
  • Stressed that patent exclusivity in India must be respected and infringement not permitted except within strict bounds.

These landmark verdicts have interpreted and evolved Indian patent law while resolving high-stakes disputes between innovator and generic drug makers.

Having robust patents helps companies recoup R&D investments and reinvest into further innovation. However, courts do impose high thresholds for true novelty and industrial applicability when granting patents.


  • Patents confer powerful IP rights to inventors in India, encouraging R&D and technical advancement. However, stringent eligibility criteria exist to ensure only truly novel and inventive innovations get legal exclusivity as patents.
  • Besides demonstrating absolute novelty and inventive step compared to existing knowledge, the invention must have industrial applicability to solve a practical problem or fulfill a commercial need.
  • Incremental modifications of known substances are barred from patentability in certain cases to prevent misuse of the system. Provisions also exist for pre-grant opposition by interested parties.
  • Inventors and companies should weigh the pros and cons before deciding whether to pursue patent registration in India, which involves considerable time, effort and expense.
  • By understanding the patentability criteria, subject matter exclusions, application process and dispute resolution scenarios, innovators can make informed decisions regarding their inventions.
  • Seeking professional guidance from specialist IP advisors is recommended when navigating India’s stringent patent regulations.

We hope this comprehensive guide has helped you learn all about patentability requirements and process in India. Please contact the patent experts at Filingwala for any questions or assistance with your patent filing and protection needs.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q. What is the total cost of obtaining a patent in India?

A. The government fee for patent filing and grant is Rs.8,000-25,000 approximately. However, professional charges of attorneys for application drafting, prosecution services and disbursements can run into Rs.40,000-150,000 on average.

Q. Can computer programs and software be patented in India?

A. As per Indian law, computer programs per se are not considered inventions and cannot be patented. However, inventions employing software/code may be patentable if they demonstrate technical advancement.

Q. How is novelty established in India for patenting?

A. There should be no prior publication or public knowledge/use of the invention anywhere globally. Absolute worldwide novelty must be demonstrated through extensive prior art searching.

Q. Can natural substances be patented after isolation and purification?

A. Mere discovery of new properties or purification of known natural substances is not patentable unless significantly enhanced efficacy is demonstrated.

Q. Does India recognize foreign patent applications?

A. India has reciprocal recognition agreements with several countries. Applicants can claim priority in India based on first foreign filing within 12 months under convention status.

Q. What is the difference between Ordinary and Convention patent applications?

A. Ordinary application is filed directly in India without priority claims. Convention Application is filed within 12 months of first applying in a convention country to claim priority.

Q. Can computer implemented business methods be patented?

A. Business methods using computers may be patentable if they solve a technical problem. However, computer programs per se and business methods are excluded under Section 3(k) of the Patents Act.

Which is Better – Private Limited Company or Proprietorship in India?

Choosing a proper business structure is one of the most important decisions entrepreneurs need to make when starting a business in India. The two most popular options are registering as a proprietorship or a private limited company.

But which structure makes more sense for your business?

Here we compare proprietorships versus private limited companies across crucial factors like taxation, legal compliance, liability, fundraising ability, and scalability to help you decide.

Taxation Differences

Private limited companies and proprietorships have significant tax differences:

  • Income Tax Rates: The flat income tax rate is 25% for private limited companies if their turnover is under Rs 250 crore, while proprietorships follow individual slab rates up to 30%. This likely means lower taxes for companies.
  • GST and TDS Compliance: Companies need to comply with GST and TDS provisions. Proprietorships having over Rs 20 lakh turnover fall under GST, while there are exemptions related to TDS.
  • Other Taxes: Companies also need to pay taxes like MAT and DDT, which does not apply to proprietorships.

Therefore, private limited companies entail higher tax compliance obligations overall compared to proprietorships in India.

Compliance Differences

Private limited companies involve more legal and procedural compliances than proprietorships on multiple fronts:

  • Registration Process: Company incorporation involves significant paperwork and documents to be filed along with higher government fees. Proprietorship registration is relatively quick and simple.
  • Record Keeping: Strict account and financial record maintenance mandated for companies. Relaxed standards for proprietorships.
  • Annual Filings: Companies must file annual returns, balance sheets, audit reports, director reports, etc. every financial year. Proprietorships have fewer filing requirements.
  • Board Meetings and Compliances: Companies must conduct board meetings, shareholder meetings, take board approvals, maintain statutory registers etc. adding to operational overheads.

Therefore, legal and procedural compliance is more stringent and demanding for private limited companies compared to proprietorships adding to administrative work and recurring costs.

Liability Differences

Companies legally separate their owners/shareholders from the business entity itself. This provides shareholders with protection and limits financial liability risks in case company faces losses or legal issues.

On the contrary, proprietorships offer unlimited liability where the sole proprietor is personally responsible for all obligations related to their business including repaying debts or legal judgments. Their personal assets like bank accounts, property etc. can be used to settle company liabilities and lawsuits.

Therefore, private limited companies protect personal assets of shareholders while proprietorships expose personal assets of owners to business risks and liabilities.

Fundraising Differences

Companies can attract external investors and raise funds by issuing shares and getting private equity funding since there are more shareholders involved. Proprietorships have only a single owner so options to raise capital from outside sources remains quite limited unless assets are pledged.

Companies also will find it easier to get bank loans and formal credit at relatively better terms given their corporate structure while banks consider lending to proprietorships as riskier.

Therefore, private limited companies have greater fundraising abilities through investors or institutional loans to fuel faster business growth which may not be possible for proprietorships.

Scalability Differences

As companies grow bigger in terms of human resources, turnover, operations etc. it makes compliance, organizational structure and management increasingly complex. The corporate structure helps companies scale up smoothly as roles and responsibilities can be properly delegated across departments, managers, shareholders etc.

Whereas for proprietorships, the proprietor continues directly managing everything even as business expands which reduces flexibility and adds to individual burden. At a certain scale, converting to a company for further growth becomes almost mandatory.

Therefore private limited companies offer greater scalability potential versus proprietorships from a structural standpoint due to their corporate hierarchy and distribution of ownership.

Examples and Case Studies

Here are some real-world examples that illustrate the kind of factors entrepreneurs consider when choosing between a proprietorship and private limited company:

Mansi started a digital marketing agency with a friend which quickly grew from 2 to 15 employees in 2 years. For better fundraising options through investor shares and reduced liability risks given larger scale and legal contracts, they converted from a proprietorship to private limited company.

Arman set-up a retail garments solo business but deliberately registered it as a private limited company so he could limit potential business liability especially since he invested significant personal real estate into the business premises.

Sheila has continued running her profitable jewelry shop as a proprietorship for years now managing everything herself instead of converting into a company since she wants to avoid increased tax and compliance burdens for now even though she has plans to expand into ecommerce.

In each case, factors like managing liability, facilitating fundraising, and easing administrative workload for growth drove choices between proprietorship and private limited company as the business situations demanded.

Expert Opinions

Here are some quotes from experts comparing proprietorships and private limited companies:

“Private limited companies make better long term sense if fundraising or protecting personal assets is crucial given the higher compliance load and taxes are easier managed with scale. Proprietorships suit solo entrepreneurs wanting tight control and minimal regulatory paperwork in early stages of risky ventures.” – Nikhil Kamath, Co-Founder, Zerodha

“Startups needing sizable capital injection will find companies offer more options to raise external funding by attracting multiple investors. This may be challenging for proprietorships managed by a single promoter with 100% ownership.” – Padmaja Ruparel, Co-Founder, Indian Angel Network

“The decision to remain a proprietorship vs converting to a company is tricky for established small businesses already running smoothly at decent scale. My recommendation is staying a proprietorship until administrative workload become unmanageable.” – Anil Agrawal, VP, Vakilsearch

The consensus among experts seems to be that while compliance and taxation burden is lower, proprietorships pose higher liability risks and can constrain fundraising abilities which makes private limited companies better suited for startups prioritizing long term growth through external investments.

Summary of Key Differences

ParameterProprietorshipPrivate Limited Company
Registration ProcessQuick and simpleLengthy, complex, more expensive
Tax RatesIndividual slab ratesFlat 25% if turnover under 250 Cr
Tax ComplianceRelaxedHigher standards especially for GST and TDS
Personal LiabilityUnlimitedLimited to shareholder capital
Raising External CapitalVery DifficultMore options via issuing shares
Growth ScalabilityProblematic beyond a pointSmooth given corporate structure

Conclusion and Recommendations

In summary, while proprietorships offer easier set-up and lower compliance burden, private limited companies prove beneficial in the long run for growth-focused ventures needing fundraising avenues and limited legal liability once operations achieve meaningful scale.

My recommendation would be starting out as a proprietorship in the early proof-of-concept and market validation stages of risky startup ideas still being tested where compliance overheads can be avoided.

Once the model is proven, initial traction received and external fundraising or credit required to scale, conversion to a private limited company makes better sense despite the extra administrative and taxation responsibilities involved.

This helps balance both flexibility in starting up through minimal setup formalities while also enabling the mechanisms to raise growth capital faster when needed as a company.

Do reach out to experts like Filingwala for personalized advice on whether staying a proprietorship or converting to private limited suits your exact business situation and vision. Their team can also help manage all legal paperwork and formalities seamlessly for company incorporation or proprietorship registration.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q: How easy is it to convert from proprietorship to company?

It is legally allowed but involves quite some paperwork, fees and procedural formalities to register a new company, shift assets/licenses etc so professional help expedites it.

Q: Can we have multi-owners in a proprietorship?

No, proprietorships only allow a single owner unlike companies which issue shares to multiple investors and shareholders.

Q: Which offers simpler closing procedure – proprietorships or companies?

Proprietorship closure just needs filing a simple cessation declaration. Company closure involves multi-step formalities with the MCA like shareholder/board approvals, settlement of taxes, debtor payments etc spanning 6-12 months.

Q: I have imported leased machinery, so which structure offers better protection?

Companies offer better liability protection given risks of foreign payments. Your personal assets can remain shielded even if the business cannot keep up with lease payments.

I hope this well researched and detailed private limited company vs proprietorship comparison helps analyze their pros and cons thoroughly across key aspects. Do reach out to the Filingwala experts for further personalized advice and assistance on business structure registration formalities so you can make the optimal choice allowing your entrepreneurial dreams to flourish!

The 9 Essential Steps to Starting a Business in India in 2024

Have you been dreaming about starting your own business in India? The New Year presents the perfect opportunity to turn your vision into reality.

With shrewd planning, intelligent decision-making, and relentless execution, 2024 could just be the year your startup goes from ideation to monetization.

By implementing the 9 essential steps covered in this guide, aspiring entrepreneurs can set their new business venture up for success. So let’s get started!

Come Up with a Winning Business Idea

Every thriving business starts with an innovative idea that solves a real consumer problem or market gap better than competitors. Once you have a spark of inspiration, validate the real-world demand for what you want to offer.

Research the potential customer base as well as the competitive landscape to gauge if your offering would truly fill an unmet need. Government initiatives like Make in India also offer attractive openings in manufacturing, services, agriculture and other sectors prime for disruption by agile startups.

So let those creative juices flow freely – just make sure to test your assumptions before moving forward!

Create a Solid Business Plan

After settling on a viable concept, the next step is crafting a comprehensive roadmap in the form of a lean startup business plan covering key elements like:

  • Executive summary
  • Business description
  • Services/products offered
  • Market analysis
  • Execution plan and growth tactics
  • Financial projections
  • Funding requirements

Having this strategic document prepared provides critical clarity on paper before you start investing precious resources into executing your vision in the unpredictable real world.

It also comes in handy when pitching your startup to investors and applying for government grants or licenses.

Fund Your Business Smartly

Very new business needs capital to get up and running – whether it is thousands of rupees or even crores depending on your expansion ambitions.

Most entrepreneurs begin by self-funding their startups using personal savings or loans/investment from friends and family. Outside of bootstrapping, here are some funding avenues worth exploring:

  • Bank Loans – multiple state-owned or private banks offer small business loans with or without collateral
  • Crowdfunding – raise smaller amounts from a large pool of investors through equity crowdfunding platforms
  • Angel Investors and VCs – these individual or institutional investors offer startups higher amounts of funding in exchange for equity

Evaluate all options and decide which source of capital aligns best with your entrepreneurial objectives.

Choose an Attention-Grabbing Name

Don’t undermine the business-building potential associated with naming your startup strategically. Along with checking name availability and trademark conflicts, opt for a name that communicates your brand essence, evokes the right emotions in your target market and has memorable stickiness.

For example, food and hospitality brands often use “tasty-sounding” names like Biryani Blues, while lifestyle product brands use premium sounding names like Bombay Shaving Company.

Set Up a Physical and/or Online Business Location

Every business needs a base of operations whether a rented/purchased office space or a home office that serves as a legally registered company address.

Additionally, establish a professional online presence by registering a domain name and launching an informational website along with branded business email IDs and social media accounts.

Apart from enabling 24/7 discoverability and connectivity with target audiences, owning these digital assets boosts legitimacy especially among increasingly tech-savvy consumers.

Legally Register Your Business

The Indian regulatory environment requires every business entity across industries (except unregistered sole proprietorships) to complete crucial formal registration and compliance processes for full legitimacy.

Decide on the ideal type of legal business structure aligned with your entrepreneurial vision whether sole proprietorship, partnership firm, LLP, OPC or private/public limited company.

Then undertake company registration, plus get additional licenses/certifications like GST Number, FSSAI License, Shop & Establishment License etc. applicable for your specific industry vertical.

While the paperwork can get confusing, expert consultants like offer to streamline mandatory registration and compliance processes so founders can focus their energy on organization building.

Build an Eye-catching Website

Since the first digital touchpoint that introduces prospects to your brand, invest in a professional-looking website reflecting your visual branding. Given most buyers now research online before purchasing, ensure your website contains the right mix of elements to drive conversions:

  • About Us: Explaining your backstory & founder(s) journey
  • Product/Service Pages: Highlighting USPs with photos/videos
  • Strong Calls-To-Action: Guiding visitors towards desired goals
  • Mechanisms: For capturing visitor information
  • Seamless integration: With marketing, sales and payment tools

Refresh website content continually with updates across text, images, videos and layouts so repeat visitors discover something new every time.

Implement Creative Marketing Campaigns

Congratulations – your startup now has all the structural elements in place from concept to team and infrastructure! But without proactive promotional efforts potential customers will never discover your brand and buy from you.

Implement multipronged digital marketing campaigns across channels like:

  • Search Engine Marketing
  • Social Media Marketing
  • Content Marketing
  • Video Marketing
  • Influencer Marketing
  • PR outreach

Simultaneously leverage traditional marketing methods like print ads, radio plugs, pamphlet distribution, events etc. based on what resonates with your audience profile.

Measure engagement and conversion metrics to double down on highest performing initiatives.

Open a Business Bank Account

Comingling personal and company’s finances can get messy fast – so open dedicated savings/current accounts under your business’ name for all future cash flows whether its infusing capital or receiving payments from customers.

When comparing bank account options for startups, assess factors like minimum balance rules, transaction limits, digital features, overdraft facility, dedicated relationship manager and more.

Key Takeaways

If the idea of launching your dream business still seems intimidating, distill the entire process down to the following key action steps:

  • Start by identifying a problem worth solving or customer desire worth satisfying
  • Quantify market potential and formulate a lean business plan
  • Fund operations via bootstrap financing, loans or external investors
  • Register legal business entity and acquire necessary licenses
  • Set up digital presence across website and social channels
  • Implement online and offline marketing to acquire customers
  • Track metrics and iterate products, messaging etc. to scale

With laser sharp focus on delivering real value to customers first and foremost, your chances of startup success in 2024 multiply significantly!


Q1: How much money is required to start a business in India?

Ans: Require capital depends greatly on your sector, business model, startup costs, working capital needs etc. Most solopreneurs bootstrap with personal savings under Rs 5 lakhs. The average tech startup raises upwards of Rs 25 lakhs from external investors.

Q2: Which is the best business to start in 2024?

Ans: Some most lucrative industries for Indian startups include fintech, edtech, foodtech, D2C, manufacturing, healthcare and SaaS. But even traditional sectors like agriculture, textile, electrics and machine tools hold exciting innovation potential.

Q3: How can I promote my new business?

Ans: Cost-effective ways for early-stage customer acquisition include digital marketing across social media platforms, engaging content, influencer collaborations, search and display advertising, email newsletters, offline activation and word-of-mouth referrals.

Expert Quotes on Starting a Business

“Evaluate whether there’s an actual market out there for your product or service before quitting your day job.” – Mark Cuban, Billionaire Entrepreneur & Shark Tank Investor

“There’s an entrepreneur right now, scared to death, making excuses, saying, ‘It’s not the right time just yet.’ There’s no such thing as a good time. Get out of your own way.” – Kevin O’Leary, Business Mogul & Shark Tank Star

“If you’re not embarrassed when you ship your first version, you waited too long.” – Reid Hoffman, LinkedIn Co-Founder & Billionaire Investor

Next Steps

I hope this guide has armed you with clarity and conviction to embark on your entrepreneurial aspirations this year. For support with legal registrations, documentation, accounting, tax filings and other mandatory compliance aspects critical for any new business, expert consultants at are available to manage your backend operations so you can stay focused on accelerating business growth in 2024!

The Only Guide You’ll Ever Need: Which ITR Should I File in 2023-24?


Come April, and millions of Indian taxpayers find themselves buried in confusion choosing the right ITR form to file. The amount of paperwork and the different rules for each ITR form means picking the wrong one can cause major issues.

To simplify the ITR filing process, we’ve created the ultimate guide with expert tips on how to select the correct Income Tax Return Form for the assessment year 2023-24.

This comprehensive guide covers everything from the ITR definition, types of forms, step-by-step instructions to expert FAQs – ensuring you file the most suitable ITR form this year without hassle. Let’s get started!

What is ITR?

ITR stands for Income Tax Return – a form used by taxpayers to furnish information about their income earned and tax liability to the Income Tax Department.

The Income Tax Act has notified 7 ITR forms so far – ITR-1, ITR-2, ITR-3, ITR-4, ITR-5, ITR-6 and ITR-7.

The applicable form depends on your income sources, amount and taxpayer category. All taxpayers must file their ITR by the specified due date. Late filing results in penalties up to Rs 10,000.

Why File ITR?

Here are the top 5 reasons to file your income tax returns correctly and on time:

  1. Claim Income Tax Refund: File your ITR to claim a refund if excess tax was deducted. The average refund per individual taxpayer was Rs 16,996 in 2022.
  2. Avoid Penalties: Late filing and non-filing of ITR invites hefty fines up to Rs 10,000 under Section 234F. Save yourself from unnecessary penalties.
  3. Visa Applications: Most countries require your ITR acknowledgments as proof of income for visa applications.
  4. Loan Approvals: Financial institutions ask for your ITRs for previous years as income proof before approving loans.
  5. Carry Forward Losses: Losses under income heads cannot be carried forward unless ITR is filed by the due date.

When is it Mandatory to File ITR in India?

You must file income tax returns in India if:

  • Your total income exceeds the basic exemption limit:
    • For individuals below 60 years: Rs 2.5 lakh
    • For senior citizens (60-79 years): Rs 3 lakh
    • For super senior citizens (above 80 years): Rs 5 lakh
  • Your income is below the exemption limit, but you meet specific conditions like:
    • Deposited over Rs 1 crore in current bank account.
    • Spent over Rs 2 lakh on foreign travel.
    • Total TDS/TCS deduction exceeds Rs 25,000
  • You are a company, business, or professional with income from business/profession.

Not filing ITR even when mandated attracts penalties and makes you susceptible to scrutiny. So, ensure you file on time.

Which ITR Form Should I Use?

Here’s a quick overview of each type of ITR form:


For resident individuals with total income up to Rs 50 lakh from:

  • Salary/Pension
  • One House Property
  • Other Sources (excluding lottery, racehorses)
  • Agricultural income up to Rs 5,000

Not allowed for: NRIs, foreign income, income from business/profession or more than one house property.


For resident individuals and HUFs not having income from business/profession. Can include:

  • Salary, House Property
  • Income from Other Sources
  • Capital Gains
  • Foreign income
  • Agricultural income more than Rs 5,000


For residents having income under head ‘Profits and Gains from Business or Profession’. Can include income from other sources.

ITR-4 (Sugam)

For resident individuals, HUFs and firms with total income up to Rs 50 lakh having:

  • Presumptive business income from section 44AD, 44ADA or 44AE
  • Income from one house property
  • Other sources income


For firms, LLPs, AOPs and other association of persons.


For Companies other than those claiming exemption under section 11.


For persons required to furnish returns under special sections like 139(4A), 139(4B) etc.

Confused between ITR-1 and ITR-2? Read our detailed guide comparing ITR-1 vs ITR-2 to pick the right one for you.

ITR Form Applicability Cheat Sheet

Here’s a quick cheat sheet to know which ITR form to use based on your income source and taxpayer status:

Income SourceIndividualHUFFirm/LLPCompanyAOP/BOI
House PropertyITR-1/ITR-2ITR-1/ITR-2ITR-2ITR-6ITR-5
Business IncomeITR-3/ITR-4ITR-3/ITR-4ITR-5ITR-6ITR-5
Capital GainsITR-2ITR-2ITR-5ITR-6ITR-5
Other SourcesITR-1/ITR-2ITR-2ITR-5ITR-6ITR-5
Foreign IncomeITR-2ITR-2ITR-5ITR-6ITR-5

How to Choose the Right ITR Form?

Follow these 5 golden steps to select the most suitable ITR form:

Step 1: List all your sources of income during the financial year.

Step 2: Identify which taxpayer category you belong to – individual, HUF, company etc.

Step 3: Calculate your gross total income.

Step 4: Decide which ITR form matches your income sources and taxpayer status.

Step 5: Use the cheat sheet above for quick confirmation.

Pro Tip: If income from more than one ITR category – business income with capital gains for instance – file the detailed ITR form instead of simpler ones like ITR-1.

Quote from a CA:

“Review all your income sources carefully. Many taxpayers miss out on reporting income like interest from savings account or taxable investments which leads to filing an incorrect ITR form. Under-reporting income can attract scrutiny so be thorough and file the right form”. – CA Mukesh Kumar, Delhi.

Frequently Asked Questions

Confused about which ITR to file for 2023-24? Here are expert answers to common doubts:

Q1. I earn only salary income but have foreign investments. Which ITR should I file?

You must file ITR-2 even though your only income is salary, since you have foreign assets. ITR-1 does not allow foreign investments.

Q2. I have income from freelancing as well as a rental house property. Which is the correct ITR form?

Since you earn business income from freelancing, you have to file ITR-3 even though you have house property income. ITR-3 can report both incomes.

Q3. I have income under capital gains and won a lottery prize. Which ITR should I pick?

You must file ITR-2 and not ITR-1. ITR-1 does not allow you to report capital gains or lottery income.

Q4. I earn Rs 7 lakh as salary and Rs 2 lakh as freelance income. Which ITR form do I need?

Since your total income of Rs 9 lakh is above the basic exemption limit and you have dual incomes, file ITR-3.


I hope this guide has given you clarity and confidence to file your ITR in the correct form this year.

Remember – pick the ITR form that matches your taxpayer status and all income sources. Furnish accurate details and file before the due date.

If you need assistance filing ITR or have more queries, experienced tax experts at can help. From ITR planning, verification to e-filing – count on for all your taxation needs this ITR season!

GSTR-3B: Due Date, Late Fee, Format, Return Filing, Eligibility, Rules INDIA

GSTR-3B is one of the most important GST returns that must be filed by every GST registered business in India. This comprehensive guide will explain everything you need to know about GSTR-3B including due dates, late fees, filing process, eligibility and more.

What is GSTR-3B?

GSTR-3B is a monthly (or quarterly) summary return that must be filed by all regular GST taxpayers. It contains details of:

  • Outward taxable supplies
  • Inward supplies liable to reverse charge
  • Input tax credit (ITC) claimed
  • Tax liability
  • Tax paid

GSTR-3B must be filed even if there are no transactions in a particular tax period. The tax liability must be paid before filing GSTR-3B to avoid interest.

Key Points:

  • GSTR-3B is a self-declared summary return, no invoice matching is done
  • It must be filed monthly (or quarterly for QRMP scheme) for every GSTIN
  • Details can’t be revised once filed
  • Nil returns also need to be submitted if there are no transactions
  • Taxes due must be paid before filing GSTR-3B

GSTR-3B was introduced as an interim measure while the invoice matching system is implemented. It allows taxpayers to claim ITC and pay taxes on a self-declaration basis without uploading invoice details.

Who Should File GSTR-3B?

All regular taxpayers registered under GST must file GSTR-3B. This includes:

  • Normal taxpayers
  • SEZ units and developers
  • Casual taxable persons
  • Input service distributors
  • Persons liable to deduct TDS under GST
  • Persons liable to collect TCS under GST

The following taxpayers are not required to file GSTR-3B:

  • Composition scheme taxpayers
  • Non-resident taxable online suppliers (filing GSTR-5)
  • Non-resident service providers (filing GSTR-5A)

GSTR-3B Due Dates

The due date to file GSTR-3B is as follows:

  • Up to Dec 2019: 20th of next month
  • Jan 2020 onwards: Staggered due dates – 11th, 13th or 15th of next month depending on turnover
  • QRMP Scheme: 24th of month after quarter end (Jan-Mar, Apr-Jun, Jul-Sep, Oct-Dec)

The due date for payment of tax remains 20th of next month (6th for March) irrespective of the GSTR-3B due date.

For updated due dates, refer the GST calendar. The government may extend dates in case of technical issues on the portal.

GSTR-3B Late Fee & Penalties

If GSTR-3B is filed after the due date, late fees and penalties are applicable as under:

  • Late fees – Rs. 50 per day (Rs. 20 for nil filers)
  • Interest – 18% per annum on late tax payment

If tax liability was paid before the due date, only late fees apply. If tax was paid late, both late fees and interest are charged.

There are also penalties for non-filing GSTR-3B for 2+ months – Rs. 200 per day up to a maximum of 100% of tax liability.

How to File GSTR-3B?

Follow these steps to file GSTR-3B:

  1. Login to the GST Portal using credentials
  2. Go to Returns > Returns Dashboard
  3. Select month and click Search
  4. Click File Return under GSTR3B tile
  5. Prepare JSON file in online/offline tool
  6. Upload JSON file on GST Portal
  7. Submit the GSTR-3B return
  8. File using EVC or DSC

GSTR-3B must be filed electronically – physical filing of returns is not allowed.

GSTR-3B Filing Format

GSTR-3B contains 6 main sections with summary values to be reported:

  1. GSTIN & Period: Give GSTIN and tax period
  2. Supplies: Report total taxable value and tax liability
  3. ITC: Report total ITC available and ITC claimed for the tax period
  4. Values of exempt, nil-rated, non-GST supplies
  5. Tax payment: Declare tax paid and interest/fee payable if any
  6. Verification: Digitally sign the GSTR-3B before submission

No invoice-level details are required in GSTR-3B. Only consolidated values are reported under each section.

GSTR-3B Eligibility and Rules

Here are some important rules regarding GSTR-3B eligibility and filing:

  • GSTR-3B can only be filed online, physical filing is not allowed
  • A separate GSTR-3B must be filed for each GSTIN
  • Actual tax payment must be done before filing GSTR-3B to avoid interest
  • Taxpayers must self-assess taxes accurately to avoid penalties
  • Invoice matching is not done for GSTR-3B so ITC claims are not validated
  • Once filed, no changes are allowed in GSTR-3B – it is a static return

Make sure to reconcile ITC claims in GSTR-3B with purchases shown in GSTR-2A to avoid discrepancies. Maintain proof of tax paid to ensure seamless credit if scrutinized.

GSTR-3B vs GSTR-1 vs GSTR-2A vs GSTR-2B

GSTR-1Outward suppliesReport sales
GSTR-2AInward suppliesAuto-populated ITC statement
GSTR-2BInward suppliesRevised ITC statement
GSTR-3BSummary returnPay tax & claim ITC

GSTR-3B should be reconciled with GSTR-1, GSTR-2A and GSTR-2B to ensure consistency of reported values. This helps avoid tax demands or loss of eligible ITC claims.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q. Is GSTR-3B filing mandatory?

Yes, all regular GST taxpayers have to file GSTR-3B for every tax period.

Q. What is the consequence of not filing GSTR-3B on time?

Late filing fees, high interest rates, penalties, adverse GST compliance rating and risk of tax scrutiny.

Q. Can I revise a filed GSTR-3B?

No, a filed GSTR-3B cannot be revised or amended in any way. Ensure accuracy before filing.

Q. Do I need to provide invoice-level details in GSTR-3B?

No, only consolidated values for each section are required in GSTR-3B.

Q. I have no transactions this month. Still do I need to file GSTR-3B?

Yes, even nil GSTR-3B must be filed confirming no transactions for the tax period.

Accurate and timely filing of GSTR-3B is crucial for maintaining a good GST compliance score and avoiding penalties. Reconcile with other returns, pay taxes on time and file before the due date.

For any assistance with GST registration, return filing, and compliances, make the right choice — FilingWala. Get end-to-end GST solutions including registration, return filing, invoice matching and more from tax experts at affordable prices. Focus on your business while FilingWala handles your GST work.

Invoicing Under GST: A Comprehensive Guide for Small Businesses (2024)

Invoicing is the backbone of GST compliance in India. Yet, invoicing is also one of the most confusing aspects for small businesses new to the GST regime. Questions like what is a valid GST invoice, what fields are mandatory, invoice format, due dates, and more often trouble SMEs striving to be GST compliant.

Issuing accurate and timely invoices is crucial to avoid hefty penalties under GST law. Errors in invoicing also lead to input tax credit loss for recipients and cash flow problems. With over 30 crore invoices generated every month, it’s clear that Indian businesses rely heavily on robust GST invoicing.

To make matters worse, the government keeps updating the invoice format and introducing new compliance measures like e-invoicing. So it’s essential for SMEs to have a firm grasp on invoicing under GST at all times

This comprehensive guide covers everything small businesses need to know about invoicing under GST in 2024.

What is a GST Invoice?

A GST invoice is a bill or receipt issued by a business registered under GST to its clients. It contains details of the transaction like goods/services supplied, tax charged, quantity, rate, and total value.

GST invoices help track the supply of goods or services and ensure the proper input tax credit is availed by the receiver. All applicable taxes like CGST, SGST, and IGST are clearly mentioned in a GST invoice.

Who Needs to Issue GST Invoices?

Any business or person registered under GST needs to issue a tax invoice for every supply of goods or services to:

  • Registered customers – B2B supplies
  • Unregistered customers – B2C supplies above ₹200

For B2C supplies below ₹200, an invoice may be issued at the discretion of the supplier.

Your vendors will also provide you purchase invoices if they are GST registered.

Mandatory Fields in a GST Invoice

As per GST rules, these key details must be present in a valid GST tax invoice:

  • Invoice number and date
  • Customer name and shipping/billing address
  • HSN code and description for each item
  • Quantity of goods or services supplied
  • Taxable value and discount
  • Rate of tax for each HSN code (CGST, SGST, IGST)
  • Signature of the supplier

If the customer is unregistered and order value exceeds ₹50,000 – name, address and State code of the receiver must be present.

GST Invoice Due Dates

Timely issuance of invoices is crucial to ensure smooth flow of input tax credits. Here are the due dates for different types of GST invoices:

Invoice TypeDue Date
Regular Tax InvoiceBefore or at the time of supply
Revised InvoiceWithin 1 month from the date of supply
Debit/Credit NoteWithin 30 days of the date of the original invoice

Delayed invoices can lead to penalty and interest for the supplier as well as loss of eligible ITC for the receiver.

How to Personalize GST Invoices?

Adding your company logo and brand colors to invoices can make them look more professional and aligned to your brand identity. There are many software tools and mobile apps that provide customizable invoice templates that allow personalizing GST invoices as per your business needs and branding.

These tools help you design invoices with your logo, colors, fonts and customized layouts while still maintaining compliance with mandatory GST invoice fields and formats. Structured templates make it easy to quickly generate error-free invoices in the same personalized format every time.

Personalized invoices that reflect your brand identity make a much better impression on your customers as compared to plain generic invoices. It also adds a touch of professionalism and seriousness to your business. So, investing some time in customizing your invoice templates using the right tools can be very beneficial.

Types of GST Invoices

Apart from regular tax invoices, there are some special types of invoices under GST:

  • Bill of Supply – Used when supplying exempted goods/services. Does not contain any taxes.
  • Invoice-cum-Bill – Single consolidated invoice for exempt + taxable supply to unregistered customers.
  • Reverse Charge Invoice – Used by registered recipients who have to pay tax under reverse charge.
  • Debit/Credit Notes – Used to increase/decrease tax liability due to changes in supply details.

Special Cases of GST Invoicing

For certain businesses like banking companies, NBFCs, passenger transportation services etc. the government has provided relaxation on mandatory fields and invoice formats under GST.

E-invoicing was also introduced in 2020 for taxpayers with over ₹500 crore turnover. It involves generating invoices on a government portal to obtain a unique IRN before issuing to customers.

Number of Invoice Copies Required

  • For supply of goods, triplicate copies (original + two duplicates) must be issued under GST.
  • For services, only duplicate copies are required.

E-invoicing and sharing digital copies can make the process easier.

FAQs on GST Invoices

Q: Can I revise pre-GST invoices?

A: Yes, old invoices (issued before your GST registration) can be revised within 1 month of obtaining registration.

Q: Is an invoice serial number mandatory?

A: Yes, invoices must be issued in a sequential series. Any changes need GST officer’s approval.

Q: Can I digitally sign invoices?

A: Yes, digital signatures are allowed on GST invoices. It enhances authenticity.

Q: Can I issue consolidated invoices?

A: For B2C supply below ₹200 per invoice, you can issue a consolidated invoice at the end of the day.

Q: When do I need to issue a Credit/Debit Note?

A: They are to be used when there is a change in the taxable value post the original invoice, within 30 days.

Accurate and timely invoicing is crucial for your business’ GST compliance. Ensure all mandatory fields are covered in your GST invoices to avoid penalties.

For any assistance with GST registration, invoicing, filing returns or resolving queries, specialized tax experts at are just a call away!

Trademark vs Copyright: Know the Key Differences

Have you ever wondered what the differences are between trademarks and copyrights? As an entrepreneur or creative, it’s important to understand how these two types of intellectual property can protect your business name, brand, content, and creations.

This article will clearly explain the distinctions between trademarks and copyrights, so you can make informed decisions about safeguarding your intellectual property.

What is a Trademark?

A trademark protects words, phrases, symbols, designs, or a combination of these elements that identifies the source of a particular product or service. For example, the Nike swoosh or the McDonald’s golden arches are instantly recognizable trademarks.

The main purpose of a trademark is to distinguish a company’s goods or services from competitors. Trademarks help prevent customer confusion about the origin of a product. They also represent the brand’s reputation and goodwill.

Some examples of things that can be trademarked include:

  • Brand names
  • Logos
  • Taglines or slogans
  • Package designs
  • Service marks

Trademarks are registered through the Controller General of Patents, Designs and Trademarks in India. The registration is valid for 10 years and can be renewed indefinitely as long as the mark remains in use.

What is a Trademark Symbol?

When a trademark application is pending, the TM symbol is used. Once registered, the ® symbol denotes a registered trademark.

A copyright protects original works of authorship like literary, dramatic, musical, and artistic works. This includes things like:

  • Books, poems, novels
  • Movies, videos, films
  • Lyrics, songs
  • Drawings, paintings, photographs
  • Sculptures, architecture
  • Computer software
  • Recipes

Copyrights protect the expressive content – not ideas, procedures, or facts. The copyright owner has the exclusive right to reproduce, distribute, publicly perform, publicly display, and make derivative works from the original content.

Copyrights are registered through the Copyright Office in India and last for 60 years after the author’s death.

The © symbol indicates a copyrighted work. It puts others on notice that the work is protected and the copyright holder reserves certain rights.

Key Differences Between Trademarks and Copyrights

While trademarks and copyrights are both intellectual property, there are some important distinctions:

Protect names, slogans, logos, designs used in commerceProtect original works of authorship like art, books, films
Identify the SOURCE of a product or serviceProtect the EXPRESSION of ideas
Registered through Trademark OfficeRegistered through Copyright Office
Protect brand identity and goodwillProtect creativity and prevent unauthorized copying
Valid for 10 years, renewableValid for life of creator + 60 years
Denoted by TM, ® symbolsDenoted by © symbol

So while trademarks protect brand identities, copyrights protect creative content. A company can leverage both to fully protect their intellectual property.

Which One Should You Register?

The type of intellectual property protection you need depends on what you want to protect.

  • If you have a business name, brand, logo, or slogan to protect, a trademark is recommended.
  • If you have written a book, song lyrics, blog content, or other creative work, a copyright will safeguard your legal rights.
  • Software often requires both trademarks on the brand name/logo as well as copyrights on the source code.
  • Product names, packaging, and industrial designs may be covered by trademarks, copyrights, or both.

Consult an intellectual property attorney if you need guidance on the best strategy. But generally:

  • Register a trademark for your brand identity and any names/logos associated with your business.
  • Copyright any creative content, art, videos, photos, software code, books, music, etc. you produce.

The strongest protection will come from registering both trademarks and copyrights for your various intellectual property assets.

Protect Your Intellectual Property with

If you need help protecting your original content and brand identity, can assist with trademark and copyright registrations. is an accounting services company that provides comprehensive business and legal services including:

  • Trademark registration
  • Copyright registration
  • Company registration
  • Income tax filing
  • GST registration and filing
  • Accounting and bookkeeping

With a team of expert professionals, makes trademark and copyright registration easy, affordable, and stress-free. They handle the entire process for you seamlessly.

Contact today to discuss your specific needs and get your intellectual property protected. Proper trademarks and copyrights give you legal rights and prevent costly infringement. Don’t wait – get your IP registered now!


Q: How much does it cost to register a trademark in India?

A: Trademark registration fees in India start from approx. Rs. 4,500 to Rs. 9,000 depending on the type of trademark application. offers trademark registration services starting at just Rs. 4,999.

Q: Can I use the TM symbol without registering my trademark?

A: Yes, you can use the TM symbol to claim trademark rights even before registration. But registration provides stronger legal protection and exclusive nationwide rights.

Q: Do I have to register my copyright?

A: While optional, registering your copyright provides extra legal benefits like the ability to sue for infringement. Unregistered works still receive copyright protections though.

Q: Should I trademark my logo, brand name, and slogan?

A: It’s smart to trademark any brand identifiers you want to protect. Logos, names, taglines, packaging designs, etc. are eligible marks. Discuss options with a trademark attorney.


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