Which Type of Company is Best for Startups in India? The Complete Guide

Which Type of Company is Best for Startups in India? The Complete Guide

Selecting the right legal structure is a critical decision for any startup in India. The business structure profoundly influences everything from registration processes, ownership models, liability implications, fundraising potential, and taxation.

This comprehensive guide examines the most common types of companies for startups in India. We compare key factors like registration requirements, liability protection, taxation policies, compliance burdens, and growth potential across different structures.

Whether you are a solo founder or founding team, reviewing these options in-depth will enable you to make the best choice aligned with your startup’s aspirations.


India’s vibrant startup ecosystem provides tremendous opportunities for aspiring entrepreneurs. However, navigating the complex legal landscape can be daunting.

With options like Sole Proprietorships, Partnerships, LLPs, OPCs, and Private Limited companies, choosing the right structure is crucial yet confusing.

This decision can have significant repercussions on your liability risks, fundraising abilities, tax outflows, and compliance management. Selecting an unsuitable structure can hamstring your startup’s growth down the line.

Therefore, fully understanding the trade-offs between different company types is imperative before taking the plunge.

In this comprehensive guide, we simplify things by directly comparing key factors across predominant structures in India.

Whether you are planning a lean bootstrapped venture or a well-funded tech startup, you need to choose a structure aligned with your goals and risk appetite. We hope this guide provides clarity to make the best decision for your exciting entrepreneurial future.

Key Factors Differentiating Company Types

While each legal structure has its own nuances, four pivotal factors set them apart:

1. Registration Formalities

From Sole Proprietorships with minimal documentation to Private Limited companies with extensive incorporation filings, registration processes vary widely across company types. Understanding compliance requirements is essential.

2. Ownership Structures

Sole Proprietorships have single owners while LLPs and Corporates have multiple owners. Distribution of ownership, control, and profit-sharing depends on the structure.

3. Liability Implications

Liability determines the legal responsibility of owners for company debts and liabilities. Sole Proprietors have unlimited liability while Corporates limit owner liability.

4. Taxation Policies

The tax treatment, deductibles, and compliance burdens differ vastly across business structures. Choosing a tax-optimized structure can save costs.

Now let’s examine each company type in-depth across these parameters:

Registration Formalities

Sole Proprietorship

Involves minimal registration formalities like licenses and permits at the municipal level. No separate business entity is created.

Partnership Firm

Requires a Partnership Deed detailing the terms between partners. Must be registered with the Registrar of Firms.


Involves comprehensive paperwork like LLP Agreement, incorporation documents. Must be registered with the Registrar of Companies (ROC).


Extensive incorporation documents like MOA, AOA required. Must be registered with the Registrar of Companies (ROC).

Private Limited Company

Incorporation documents (MOA, AOA) must be filed for registration with the ROC.

Public Limited Company

Most stringent incorporation requirements including IPO filings. Must register with the ROC.

Ownership Structures

Sole Proprietorship

Single individual fully controls and owns the entire business. No partners involved.

Partnership Firm

Two or more partners jointly own the business based on terms in the partnership agreement.


Owned and managed collectively by partners similar to traditional partnerships.


100% ownership lies with the single founder. Full control vests with them.

Private Limited Company

Ownership distributed between shareholders based on equity stakes. Managed by Directors.

Public Limited Company

Ownership fragmented across public shareholders. Professionally managed by the Board.

Liability Implications

Sole Proprietorship

Sole owner carries unlimited liability for all debts and legal liabilities. Personal assets at huge risk.

Partnership Firm

Partners carry unlimited joint and several liability. Personal assets can be seized to settle business debts.


Partners enjoy limited liability protecting personal assets. Liability limited to individual capital contributions.


The sole shareholder enjoys limited liability up to their paid-up capital. Personal assets remain protected.

Private Limited Company

Shareholders liability is limited to their equity stake amount. Personal assets remain protected.

Public Limited Company

Shareholders liability limited to shareholding amount. Assets protected from business obligations.

Taxation Policies

Sole Proprietorship

Taxed as individual income. Substantial compliance burden for tracking business and personal finances.

Partnership Firm

Pass-through taxation model. Partners pay personal taxes on their share of firm profits.


Pass-through taxation. Partners file individual returns for share of profits. Lower compliance burden.


Flat 18-25% corporate tax rate on profits based on turnover. Lower burden than personal taxation.

Private Limited Company

Taxed at flat 18-25% on profits. Additional taxes on distributions. Higher compliance burden.

Public Limited Company

Taxation levels identical to Private Limited. Slightly higher compliance burden.

Most Common Company Structures in India

Now let’s examine the features, pros, and cons of each structure in greater depth:

Sole Proprietorship

A Sole Proprietorship is the simplest business structure where an individual operates as an unincorporated business. No separate business entity is created.

Key Features:

  • Single individual owner-operator
  • No separation between personal and business finances
  • Minimal legal formalities
  • Owner has unlimited liability for debts and obligations


  • Easy and fast to set up
  • Complete control for the owner
  • Minimal legal formalities
  • Low overheads and compliance costs


  • Unlimited liability exposure
  • No protection for personal assets
  • Limited access to capital for growth
  • Limited credibility in market
  • Ceases to exist upon death/incapacitation of owner

Best Suited For

Freelancers, consultants, artists, authors, small shop owners, household businesses, and solo entrepreneurs offering professional services with low startup costs.

Partnership Firm

A Partnership Firm involves two or more individuals coming together to form an unincorporated business and sharing ownership, investments, profits, losses and liabilities.

Key Features:

  • Two or more partners
  • Partnership deed governs roles and responsibilities
  • Unlimited joint and several liability for partners
  • Income taxed at personal rates


  • Easy to establish with partners
  • Shared capital, skills and expertise
  • Flexibility in operations and profit-sharing
  • Pass-through taxation model
  • Low compliance overheads


  • Unlimited personal liability for partners
  • Lack of perpetuity upon partner exits
  • Shared yet uncertain decision making
  • Limited access to external capital
  • Interpersonal disputes between partners

Best Suited For

Small business collaborations where individuals pool complementary skills, expertise and networks, like professional consultancies, retail stores, restaurants, and creative agencies.

Limited Liability Partnership (LLP)

A Limited Liability Partnership blends elements of partnership firms and corporate structures. It offers limited liability protection to partners while allowing operational flexibility of partnerships.

Key Features:

  • Separate legal entity with perpetual succession
  • Limited liability for partners
  • Partnership-styled flexible management
  • No restriction on share transfers


  • Limited liability shield for partners
  • Flexibility in operations and profit-sharing
  • Lesser compliance requirements vs Private Limited
  • Perpetual existence irrespective of partner changes
  • Easier to dissolve or exit vs company


  • Limited access to capital markets for fundraising
  • Less credibility vs company for investors
  • No option for equity-based partner compensation
  • Higher personal tax rates for partners

Best Suited For

Professional services like legal, audit, accounting, healthcare, design studios where partners want operational flexibility with limited liability.

One Person Company (OPC)

A One Person Company offers entrepreneurs statutory benefits of a company while allowing 100% ownership with a single founder.

Key Features:

  • Distinct legal entity with limited liability
  • Single promoter holds 100% shares
  • Minimal capitalization requirements
  • Nominee structure for succession planning


  • Limited personal liability protection
  • Separate legal entity and brand identity
  • Easier access to capital vs proprietorship
  • Perpetual succession planning via nominee
  • Minimal compliance vs Private Limited company
  • Lower corporate taxation vs personal tax


  • Limited access to capital vs companies
  • Managed and owned by one person
  • Statutory compliance can still be substantial
  • Not suitable for foreign owners
  • High penalties for non-compliance

Best Suited For

Solopreneurs, freelancers, consultants, and independent professionals seeking limited liability status with minimal regulatory compliance.

Private Limited Company

A Private Limited Company structures offers limited liability status to shareholders while giving more control versus Public Limited. Ownership is closely held and shares are not freely traded.

Key Features:

  • Separate legal entity with perpetual succession
  • Shareholder liability limited to shareholding
  • Privately held share capital
  • No free transferability of shares
  • Closely held ownership structure


  • Limited liability for shareholders
  • Perpetual succession irrespective of member changes
  • Freely transferable ownership via shares
  • Access to private equity and institutional capital
  • Enhanced credibility and trust


  • Closely held illiquid shareholding
  • High incorporation and compliance costs
  • Directors more accountable vs LLPs
  • Shareholder disputes can disrupt operations
  • Winding up is a complex process

Best Suited For

High-growth startups seeking angel, VC or private equity funding, technology companies, manufacturing firms, and family-owned businesses with succession planning needs.

Public Limited Company

A Public Limited Company offers limited liability status to shareholders while also allowing capital raising through equity offerings and public listings. Ownership is dispersed between public shareholders.

Key Features:

  • Separate legal entity with perpetual succession
  • Publicly tradable shares
  • Shareholder liability limited to capital contribution
  • Professionally managed by Board of Directors


  • Limited liability for public shareholders
  • Freely traded and valued shares
  • Access to public capital markets
  • Enhanced credibility and visibility
  • Attractive ESOP and acquisition currency


  • Complex compliance and disclosures
  • Higher overheads and promotion costs
  • Shareholder conflicts can disrupt operations
  • Pressure for short-term performance
  • Loss of management control

Best Suited For

Large established companies looking to raise growth capital via public markets, introduce liquidity for investors, and enhance brand visibility among consumers.

Which Structure is Right for Your Startup?

With diverse options available, founders must deliberately evaluate tradeoffs and choose a structure aligned with their startup’s aspirations and risk profile.

Here are some key considerations for selecting the right legal entity:

Bootstrap vs Funded – Well-capitalized startups can better handle the higher overheads of corporate entities while bootstrappers are better off with simpler structures.

Short vs Long Term – Companies better suit entrepreneurs with a long-term perspective rather than sole proprietors looking for quick returns.

Team vs Solo – Partnerships and LLPs suit multi-founder startups. Sole proprietors can operate via OPCs.

Domestic vs Global – Those with international ambitions are better off with globally recognized corporate structures.

Tech vs Offline – Asset-light tech/digital startups can thrive with simpler structures initially while manufacturing/hardware companies incorporate upfront.

Compliance Appetite – Those averse to regulatory burdens should stick to LLPs and sole proprietorships over more stringent company structures.

Liability Risk Appetite – Cautious founders prefer limited liability entities while the bold don’t mind unlimited risk.

Funding Needs – Corporates offer more access to VC/PE funding while bootstrapped startups use internal capital.

Exit Plans – Those targeting quick sales opt for lean proprietorships while companies suit long-term empire builders.

Beyond these broad guidelines, seek expert legal and tax advice before finalizing your ideal structure aligned with your startup’s specific situation and goals.


Selecting the right company structure is a high-stakes choice for founders and dramatically influences a startup’s trajectory. While options like sole proprietorship offer simplicity and autonomy, corporates like Private Limited provide credibility and fundraising abilities.

Carefully examine registration formalities, ownership implications, liability risks, and taxation policies across different structures. Seek professional guidance from corporate lawyers and chartered accountants to pick the ideal fit based on your specific context, goals and risk appetite.

Choosing the wrong structure can saddle startups with excessive liabilities, taxes, and compliance burdens. But the right choice provides a strong legal bedrock for pursuing growth with adequate investor and partner trust.

Irrespective of whether you pick a lean sole proprietorship or a sophisticated corporate entity, make an informed decision after reviewing pros and cons across key parameters. Your ideal structure allows you to focus maximum energy on execution versus regulatory distractions.

So leverage this guide to have clarity, carefully evaluate tradeoffs, and pick the best company structure to achieve your entrepreneurial aspirations!


Q1: What is the difference between a Partnership Firm and an LLP?

A Partnership Firm offers no liability protection to partners unlike an LLP where partner liability is limited. LLP also has perpetual succession unlike partnership.

Q2: How many members are required to form a Private Limited Company?

A minimum of two members are required to form a Private Limited Company in India.

Q3: What are the compliance requirements for OPCs?

OPCs need to comply with incorporation, annual filing, board meeting, financial statement submission and other regulatory requirements under the Companies Act.

Q4: Can a Public Limited Company offer shares to the public for investment?

Yes, a Public Limited Company can raise capital by issuing shares through an IPO and listing the shares on a recognized stock exchange.

Q5: What are the tax implications for different business structures in India?

Sole proprietors and partnerships attract personal taxation. LLPs and companies are taxed at flat corporate tax rates based on profits. Companies also have dividend distribution taxes.

The Skyrocketing Future of Startups in India: 2024 Industry Insights, Predictions and Growth Strategies

Startups in India


The startup landscape in India has exploded with breakneck growth over the past decade. Emerging from fledgling beginnings, Indian startups today attract more funding than UK and Germany combined, second only to the US.

The future shines brighter than ever for Indian startups. Backed by government stimulus policies and an expanding digital economy, India is forecast to house 100 unicorns by 2025. Entrepreneurs equipped with the right strategies can ride this momentum to build successful ventures.

This article analyzes the key drivers empowering the rise of Indian startups, government initiatives cultivating the ecosystem, critical challenges to navigate, actionable success strategies for 2024, expert predictions, and the outlook for the future. Let’s get started.

The Meteoric Rise of Indian Startups

From just 733 recognized startups in 2016-17, India today boasts over 14,000 newly recognized companies as of 2022 – a whopping 18x growth within 5 years!

The total valuation of India’s startup ecosystem has skyrocketed from $46 billion to $320 billion in the same period. Much of this growth has been led by consumer tech and fintech companies like Zomato, Paytm, Ola, and others attracting billions in funding.

Rapid digitization, increasing internet/smartphone penetration, a large young talent pool, and supportive government stimulus have formed the cornerstones for this monumental growth story.

Key Drivers Propelling Future Growth

What are the key factors predicted to spur Indian startups to even greater heights over the coming years?

The Rise of Digital Technologies Digital adoption continues accelerating rapidly across India, bringing millions of new internet users online every month.

There are over 625 million broadband connections as of 2022, covering over 70% of the population. The onset of 5G in 2023 will further boost digital transformation, bringing faster speeds and more reliability.

As digital proliferation increases, it expands the playing field for startups to offer innovative solutions to pressing problems across industries like agriculture, education, healthcare, finance, and more. Many trailblazing startups are already making an impact in these areas.

Government Initiatives Cultivating the Ecosystem

The Indian government has rolled out sizeable initiatives and incentives to foster startups under the Startup India campaign. These include:

  • Financial Support: €2 billion Startup India Seed Fund, R&D grants, tax exemptions
  • Incubation Centers: Over 75 state-backed incubation centers offer mentorship, resources
  • Compliance Relief: Relaxed procurement norms, IPR fast-tracking, self-certification
  • Fund of Funds: €620 million allocated over 14 VC firms to fund startups
  • Startup Platforms: Online discovery, learning and community platforms

These constructive policies have directly translated to ground-level impact.

According to Nasscom estimates, startups have created 8 lakh jobs in India since 2016, and are projected to generate 1.1 million direct jobs by 2025 – underscoring their massive economic value.

Overcoming Critical Challenges

Despite trailblazing success, Indian startups still grapple with barriers that threaten sustainable growth:

Limited Funding Access

While the situation is improving with more active investors and government capital inflow, early-stage funding remains a bottleneck. Over 94% of all startup funding goes to just the top 7 states, indicating a stark disparity in access that needs balancing.

Complex Regulations

Navigating the regulatory red tape around areas like tax, labor laws, comply requirements remains time and resource intensive. Though compliance procedures have eased, further simplification could significantly improve the startup experience.

Infrastructure Constraints

Quality infrastructure still remains inconsistent for startups looking to penetrate remote rural areas and smaller towns, where user demand is hitting an inflection point. Continued public and private participation is vital to bridge these infrastructure gaps.

Startup Success Strategies for 2024

Now that we’ve set the stage of the startup environment in India, what are some practical success strategies for startups this year?

  1. Leverage Government Incentives: Make the most of startup friendly government incentives around funding options, tax exemptions, incubation schemes and fast-tracked compliances to acquire an extra edge.
  2. Evaluate Digital adjacencies: Digital proliferation means online-first business models that solve real customer problems using technology have a ripe opportunity to thrive across sectors like media, retail, finance, logistics and more.
  3. Tap Vernacular Demand: As internet users from India’s suburbs and rural heartland come online, vernacular language interfaces and communication will be key to drive engagement. Prioritize native languages early in your content and product.
  4. Solopreneur to Startup: Solopreneurs and freelancers can take advantage of India’s startup revolution to build their personal brands into funded companies, through right guidance and execution.

“India’s expanding digital infrastructure presents a turning point for startups in fintech, agritech and edtech to drive meaningful impact at population scale.” – Saurabh Nigam, Co-Founder – Udhyam Learning Foundation

Expert Predictions and Insights

“India’s tech talent and thriving consumer demand combined with supportive government stimulus make it ripe to emerge the global startup epicenter this decade” – Ankur Warikoo, Co-Founder Near. Store

“While Indian startups make waves on the global stage, domestic too small-town consumers will catalyze the next wave of startups aiming to uplift India’s masses in untapped categories like vernacular social networks, rural fintech solutions and hyperlocal e-commerce.” – Kashyap Deorah, Founder – HyperTrack

“India is moving towards becoming the top hub for SaaS startups globally. As digital transformation rises across companies and the government, it will open billion dollar opportunities in cloud software across sectors like banking, retail, logistics and more.” – Girish Mathrubootham, CEO Freshworks

The Road Ahead: Future Outlook

As per data platform Tracxn, India today houses over 100 unicorns, third behind only the US and China. India is projected to house over 250 unicorns by 2025, cementing its place as a world startup leader.

Verticals like fintech, edtech, healthtech, agritech, and D2C brands will drive the majority of momentum with increased digital adoption enabling startups to scale effectively.

Tier 2 & 3 cities will receive focus as untapped consumer markets, while more women entrepreneurs will rise up to leadership with equitable representation. Overall, India’s startup growth story remains strong for the next decade, though supportive regulatory and cybersecurity policies must evolve in parallel.


Q. How many startups are there in India currently?

A. As of 2022, India has over 70,000 officially recognized startups across the country.

Q. Which city has the most startups in India?

A. Bangalore, the Silicon Valley of India, has the highest density of startups followed by Delhi/NCR, Mumbai and Hyderabad.

Q. Which sectors will drive future startup growth in India?

A. Fintech, edtech, HelathTech, e-commerce and AgriTech startups have the highest growth potential for the coming years.

Q. What is the future of small town startups in India?

A. Startups focused on serving vernacular language users in India’s small towns and rural areas can unlock massive scale in untapped categories like social commerce, hyperlocal delivery and more.

Leverage filingwala.com for Hassle-Free Compliance

For founders setting up startups in India this year, expert assistance with business compliance can help avoid common pitfalls. filingwala.com offers affordable company registration, trademark filing, tax filing for new startups and solopreneurs to ease their compliance burden across necessary procedures.

Their online CFO support helps you track and meet all regulatory requirements as you scale, letting you focus on your core business. With filingwala’s expertise, efficiently manage compliance as you drive your startup to success in 2024!

Optimized Guide to Taxation and Accounting for Private Limited Companies in India

Optimized Guide to Taxation and Accounting for Private Limited Companies in India


Private limited companies are a popular choice for entrepreneurs in India, offering advantages like limited liability, capital raising flexibility, and ownership control. However, taxation and accounting for these companies can be complex. This comprehensive guide will explain taxation for private limited companies in India, corporate tax rates and calculations, available tax benefits and deductions, mandatory accounting and compliance requirements, income tax return filing, penalties for non-compliance, and more.

With practical insights and expert tips, this guide aims to help business owners navigate the intricate world of corporate taxation and regulations in India. Whether you’re just starting out or are a seasoned entrepreneur, read on to uncover all you need to know to effectively manage taxation and accounting for your private limited company.

Overview of Taxation for Private Limited Companies

In India, taxes are categorized as direct or indirect. Direct taxes like income tax and capital gains tax are levied directly on the company’s income and profits. Indirect taxes like GST are imposed on distribution of goods and services.

Private limited companies enjoy many tax advantages over other structures. These include:

  • Lower corporate tax rates
  • Tax deductions for expenses like asset depreciation
  • Exemption from Dividend Distribution Tax (DDT)
  • Compensating directors through salaries reduces tax (dividends are taxable)

For example, a manufacturing company can reduce tax liability by opting for Section 115BAA and paying 22% flat corporate tax rates on income, irrespective of turnover thresholds.

Therefore, understanding corporate taxation is key. Companies should utilize available tax exemptions, deductions, incentives and maximize use of salaries over dividends to optimize after-tax income. Proper accounting and auditing also help minimize tax incidence.

Corporate Income Tax Rates and Calculation

Income tax is levied on a company’s total taxable income, which is closely linked to book profits. Tax liability arises only when total income is positive.

Income tax rates vary based on:

  1. Turnover thresholds
  2. Residential status (domestic or foreign company)
  3. Nature of business (manufacturing, services etc.)

Domestic Company Tax Rates:

A. Turnover above Rs. 400 crores:

  • 30% flat on first Rs 1 crore net income
  • Rs 3 lakhs plus 30% on income from Rs 1-10 crores
  • Rs 3 crores plus 30% on income exceeding Rs 10 crores

B. Turnover below Rs. 400 crores:

  • 25% flat on first Rs 1 crore net income
  • Rs 2.5 lakhs plus 25% on income from Rs 1-10 crores
  • Rs 2.5 crores plus 25% on income exceeding Rs 10 crores

C. Domestic Manufacturing Companies:

Certain new manufacturing companies can opt for beneficial corporate tax rates under Section 115BAA and 115BAB of the Income Tax Act.

In addition, surcharges, cesses are levied:

  • Surcharge – 10% if income exceeds Rs 1 crore (capped at 15% for listed companies)
  • Cess – 4% of income tax + surcharge (Health & Education cess)

Foreign Company Tax Rates:

Foreign companies in India are taxed at a flat 40% corporate tax rate on total income. Surcharge of 2% is applied if income exceeds Rs 1 crore but is less than Rs 10 crores. If income exceeds Rs 10 crores, surcharge of 5% is applicable. Cess is 4%.

Therefore, tax planning opportunities exist for private limited companies to minimize tax incidence. Choosing optimal business structure, claiming deductions for expenses, timing income recognition, and utilizing tax exemptions/incentives can help reduce overall tax liability.

Tax Benefits and Deductions

Numerous tax benefits are available for private limited companies in India, allowing them to reduce their tax outgo and improve bottom line profits.

  1. Director Salaries: Paying directors a salary instead of dividends can help reduce tax liability substantially. Salaries are tax deductible business expenses whereas dividends are taxable in directors’ hands. Salaries can optimize after-tax income for both company and directors.
  2. Preliminary Expenses: Expenses incurred during company registration like stamp duties, legal fees, printing charges can be written off over 5 years, reducing taxable income in the initial years.
  3. Rent: If the registered office is rented in a director’s name, then rent can be claimed as deductible business expenditure.
  4. Bonus/Commissions: Performance linked bonus/commission paid to directors as a percentage of profit are deductible from company’s taxable income.
  5. Leave Encashment: Unavailed leave can be encashed by employees and directors at the time of retirement and claimed as deduction while computing taxable income.
  6. Employee Benefits: Expenses incurred on employee benefits like gratuity, PF, health insurance can be claimed as business deductions under Section 36(1)(iv) and 37(1).
  7. Depreciation: Depreciation on tangible assets like machinery, furniture can be claimed as deduction under Section 32. Higher depreciation of 40% is available on some assets.
  8. Amortization: Intangible assets like trademarks, licenses, patents are eligible for depreciation of 25% under Section 32(1)(ii)
  9. Carry Forward Losses: Business losses if any can be carried forward and set off against income for next 8 assessment years, reducing future tax liability.
  10. Capital Gains Reinvestment: Capital gains earned on certain asset sales can be invested tax-free under Section 54.

Therefore, strategic use of available deductions, exemptions, rebates and relief provisions helps minimize company’s tax burden. Proper tax planning and projections are key.

Accounting and Compliance

Financial Reporting

  • All companies must maintain books of accounts and get them audited annually.
  • Books of accounts act as basis for computing total taxable income.
  • Financial statements like balance sheet and P&L accounts offer snapshot of company’s financial position.

Statutory Audit

  • It is compulsory for all private limited companies to conduct statutory audit by an independent auditor.
  • Scope includes verifying financial records, testing accuracy of financial statements, ensuring adherence to accounting standards.
  • Audit report highlights material misstatements or errors to improve integrity of financial information.

Annual Compliances

Some key annual compliance requirements are:

  1. Income Tax Return Filing:
  • Due date is September 30 for financial year ending March 31
  • Mandatory for all companies regardless of turnover or profitability
  • ITR-6 is the relevant form
  1. Appointing an Auditor:
  • Auditor must be appointed within 30 days of incorporation
  • Consent and eligibility certificates are required from auditor
  • ADT-1 form must be filed with MCA for auditor appointment
  1. AGM and Financial Statements:
  • First AGM must be held within 9 months of incorporation
  • Then, AGM must be conducted annually within 6 months of financial year end
  • Financial statements must be filed with MCA within 30 days of AGM in form AOC-4
  1. Directors Report:
  • As per Section 134, directors must share a report on operations, financials, performance, risks, future outlook etc.
  1. Annual Returns:
  • Form MGT-7 must be filed within 60 days of AGM as annual return

Therefore, compliance provides legal validity, accountability and transparency. It also shields the company from regulatory actions.

FilingWala – Your Compliance Partner

Staying on top of compliance requirements along with business growth is challenging. This is where FilingWala steps in as your trusted legal and compliance advisor. Their services include:

  • Company Registration and Incorporation
  • Accounting, Bookkeeping and Auditing
  • Income Tax Filing and GST Compliance
  • Trademark Registration
  • Annual Compliances and Government Filings

By outsourcing to FilingWala, you can focus on business expansion while ensuring legal compliance. Their experts track due dates, file returns well in advance and maintain up-to-date records. Leverage their cost-effective solutions for end-to-end compliance management.

Income Tax Return Filing

All private limited companies, irrespective of income or profits, must file income tax returns annually by September 30. This is mandatory even for dormant companies. Relevant forms are:

ITR-6: For domestic companies

ITR-7: For foreign companies

Documents Required:

  • Financial statements
  • Auditor’s report
  • Minutes of board meetings
  • Minutes of AGM
  • Directors’ report
  • Depreciation charts
  • Tax audit report (if applicable)
  • Bank statements

Steps for ITR Filing:

  1. Collect Documents: Gather all documents showing income, expenses, taxes paid, deductions claimed.
  2. Compute Total Taxable Income: Use financial statements to compute gross total income. Then claim deductions, exemptions, etc. to arrive at taxable income.
  3. Calculate Tax Liability: Based on residential status, turnover thresholds and taxable base, calculate income tax payable. Also factor in surcharges and cesses.
  4. Fill ITR form: Furnish all particulars like PAN, revenue details, tax liability, advance taxes paid, TDS, due refund etc. in relevant ITR form.
  5. E-verify Return: On successful submission, ITR must be e-verified within 120 days else it is considered invalid. E-verification methods include net-banking, Aadhaar OTP, EVC, physical signature etc.
  6. Issue TDS Certificates: Once ITR is filed, companies must issue TDS certificates for taxes deducted from payments to employees, contractors etc. using Form 16 or Form 16A.

Therefore, accurate and timely ITR filing coupled with issuance of TDS certificates ensures full compliance with income tax laws.

Non-compliance and Penalties

Consequences of Non-Compliance:

  1. Financial Penalties:

For statutory non-compliance like missed filings, late filings, errors etc. heavy monetary penalties are levied by MCA. Common fines are:

  • Delay in conducting AGM: Rs 1 lakh
  • Delay in filing MGT-7: Rs 10000 per day
  • Delay in filing AOC-4: Rs 1000 per day
  1. Imprisonment:

Wilful intent to evade tax or shareholder fraud can even lead to imprisonment as per Section 447A of Companies Act. Punishment can be up to 10 years.

  1. Disqualification of Directors:

As per Section 164 of Companies Act, directors may face disqualification from directorship for:

  • Fraud conviction
  • Unpaid dues
  • Repeated non-compliance
  • Mismanagement
  1. Audit Qualifications:

Errors/omissions highlighted in audit report can raise questions on financial controls. Banks may deny funding based on audit qualifications.

  1. Loss of Credibility:

Non-compliance indicates inefficient management, lack of transparency and weak internal controls. It damages company’s professional reputation.

  1. Higher Scrutiny:

Repeated non-compliance increases the likelihood of extra scrutiny and audits by tax authorities. This disrupts operations.

Therefore, compliance provides legitimacy and accountability. It helps build trust andconfidence among regulators, shareholders and other stakeholders. Non-compliance jeopardizes company’s credibility and growth.


Running a private limited company in India offers many advantages but also involves navigating complex compliance and taxation regulations. As discussed in this guide:

  • Tax planning is crucial to minimize incidence and maximize after-tax income
  • Lower corporate tax rates apply for small companies with turnover under Rs 400 crores
  • Numerous exemptions and deductions help reduce tax liability
  • Salaries to directors provide deduction benefits over dividends
  • Accounting accuracy and auditing provides transparency to regulators
  • Timely annual compliances like AGM, ITR filing, and MCA filings are mandatory

Non-compliance attracts heavy penalties, hurts company reputation and growth. Therefore, entrepreneurs should utilize available tax benefits optimally through proper projections and planning. Periodic review of updated rules also helps. Seeking expert help ensures accounting accuracy and timely compliance.

At FilingWala, our dedicated advisors assist with end-to-end company registration, accounting, tax filing, legal services and annual compliances. Partner with us for comprehensive solutions and stay compliant while growing your business.


Q1: What are the corporate tax rates applicable for private limited companies in India?

A1: Corporate tax rates for private limited companies in India are based on:

  1. Residential status: Rates differ for domestic and foreign companies
  2. Turnover slabs:
  • Domestic companies with turnover over Rs 400 crores are taxed at 30%
  • Those with turnover less than Rs 400 crores are taxed at 25%
  1. Nature of business: Beneficial rates apply for manufacturing companies
  2. Surcharges and cesses are also levied on top of base tax rates

Q2: What are some examples of tax deductions available to private limited companies?

A2: Some common tax deductions available are:

  • Salaries paid to directors
  • Rent paid for registered office
  • Preliminary incorporation expenses
  • Depreciation on tangible assets like machinery, furniture
  • Amortization of intangible assets like trademarks, licenses
  • Employee benefit expenses like PF, gratuity, health insurance
  • Bonus or commissions paid to directors
  • Interest on business loans
  • Carrying forward business losses for set-off

Q3: What are the due dates for income tax return filing by private limited companies?

A3: The due date for filing income tax returns by all private limited companies is September 30th of each assessment year, for the preceding financial year ending March 31st. For FY 2021-22, the ITR filing deadline is September 30, 2022. Delayed filing attracts interest and penalties.

Q4: Is tax audit mandatory for private limited companies in India?

A4: Tax audit is mandatory for private limited companies whose turnover or gross receipts exceed Rs 1 crore in the preceding financial year. Such companies must get their accounts audited by September 30 and file the audit report with the ITR by the due date.

Q5: What are the major accounting and compliance requirements for private limited companies?

A5: Key accounting and compliance requirements are:

  • Appointing a statutory auditor within 30 days of incorporation
  • Maintaining accurate books of accounts
  • Getting annual statutory audit conducted
  • Holding an Annual General Meeting every fiscal year
  • Filing annual returns (MGT-7) within 60 days of AGM
  • Filing financial statements (AOC-4) within 30 days of AGM
  • Issuing quarterly TDS certificates
  • Filing TDS returns quarterly
  • Filing annual income tax returns

Q6: What are the penalties for non-compliance with MCA regulations?

A6: Consequences for non-compliance include:

  • Heavy monetary penalties for delays, lapses in filings
  • Imprisonment for fraud under Section 447A
  • Disqualification of directors
  • Loss of stakeholder confidence and credibility
  • Increased scrutiny and audits by tax authorities

Therefore, companies must ensure timely compliance to avoid these outcomes.

Q7: How can accounting services providers like Filingwala help manage compliance?

A7: Outsourcing compliance activities to experts like Filingwala reduces the administrative workload for companies. Their services include:

  • Tracking of compliance due dates
  • Preparing and filing statutory forms
  • Collating documents for IT and GST filing
  • Conducting audits and bookkeeping
  • Drafting resolutions and maintaining statutory registers
  • Providing quarterly compliance reminders/updates

This allows companies to focus on core business activities while ensuring regulatory compliance.

Unlocking the Secrets of Copyright Ownership and Transfer: A Comprehensive Guide

Unlocking the Secrets of Copyright Ownership and Transfer: A Comprehensive Guide

I. Introduction

In today’s digital age, where intellectual property has become a valuable asset, understanding the nuances of copyright ownership and transfer is essential for authors, businesses, and individuals alike. Think about it – your creative works, whether it’s a book, a song, a photograph, or a piece of software, are your intellectual property, and you have the right to control how they are used and distributed.

But what if you want to sell those rights to someone else or grant them a license to use your work? That’s where copyright transfer comes in. It’s a complex process with a lot of legal jargon and fine print, but don’t worry – we’re here to break it all down for you in plain English.

In this comprehensive guide, we’ll take you on a journey through the world of copyright ownership and transfer. From determining who owns the copyright in the first place to the different ways rights can be transferred, licensed, or terminated, we’ll cover it all. So buckle up and get ready to unlock the secrets of copyright ownership and transfer – and learn how to protect and monetize your creative works like a pro.

II. Eligible Owners of Copyrighted Works

Let’s start with the basics. As a general rule, the author of a work is considered the first owner of the copyright. So if you wrote a book, composed a song, or painted a masterpiece, the copyright belongs to you.

But there are a few exceptions to this rule, as outlined in Section 17 of the Indian Copyright Act. For example, if you wrote an article for a newspaper or magazine as an employee, the publication actually owns the copyright for that particular work.

The same goes for photographs, paintings, or films that you created at the request of someone else (and were paid for it) – in those cases, the person who commissioned the work and paid you is considered the first owner of the copyright.

In a landmark case in 2011, the Delhi High Court granted copyright ownership to a plaintiff who wasn’t even the photographer – they were the ones who paid the photographer and requested the photos, so they were deemed the first owners.

There are also special rules for works created by employees or contractors, government works, and works created by international organizations. But don’t worry, we’ll dive deeper into those nuances later.

The key takeaway here is that copyright ownership isn’t always straightforward. It depends on the specific circumstances surrounding the creation of the work, so it’s important to understand the legal framework and your rights as a creator or commissioner of creative works.

III. Employee and Contractor Works

Now let’s talk about works created by employees and independent contractors, as this is a common scenario in many industries.

If you’re an employee and you create a work as part of your job duties, guess what? Your employer automatically becomes the first owner of the copyright in that work. This is known as a “work made for hire,” and it applies as long as there isn’t a separate contract specifying otherwise.

However, there’s a twist. If the work you created as an employee is a literary, musical, artistic, or dramatic piece that gets incorporated into a film, your employer doesn’t automatically own the copyright. In that case, you retain the initial ownership, and your employer would need to get a specific assignment from you to own the rights.

On the flip side, if you’re an independent contractor and you create a copyrighted work for a client, the first ownership of the copyright belongs to you, not the client. The client only has the right to use the work for the specific purpose they hired you for, unless you sign an assignment giving them full ownership.

So if you’re a freelance graphic designer, for example, and you design a logo for a client, you own the copyright to that logo by default. If the client wants full ownership, they’ll need to ask you to transfer the copyright to them through a written assignment.

It’s crucial for both employers and clients to understand these nuances when working with employees or contractors. Proper documentation and agreements can help ensure that copyright ownership is clearly established and transferred appropriately, if desired.

IV. Joint and Collective Ownership

In some cases, a copyrighted work may be co-owned by multiple authors. This is known as joint authorship, and it occurs when two or more authors collaborate on a work, and their contributions are inseparable.

A leading case on joint authorship in India is Najma Heptulla v Orient Longman Ltd and Ors, which established the criteria for determining whether a work is truly a joint creation. The key factor is that each author must have made a significant and inseparable contribution to the final product.

Joint ownership doesn’t necessarily mean equal ownership, though. The rights and responsibilities of co-owners can be governed by agreements or contracts that spell out the specifics of their ownership and the division of rights and royalties.

Collective works, like anthologies or encyclopedias, also involve multiple authors and contributors. In these cases, the individual authors hold copyright in their respective contributions, but the collective work as a whole may be owned by the publisher or editor who compiled and organized the contributions.

Understanding the concept of joint and collective ownership is crucial for authors, publishers, and copyright holders to navigate the complexities of collaborative works and ensure that rights and interests are properly protected and managed.

V. Transfer of Rights

So now that we’ve covered who can own a copyright, let’s talk about how those rights can be transferred.

There are a few different ways to transfer copyright ownership:

  1. Assignment: This is a complete transfer of ownership from the original creator (known as the “assignor”) to another party (the “assignee”). The assignee essentially becomes the new owner of the copyright.
  2. Testamentary Disposition: Copyright can also be transferred through a will, allowing the creator to pass on their rights to designated heirs or beneficiaries.
  3. Inheritance: If a creator dies without a will, their copyright may be transferred to their legal heirs through intestate succession (the process of distributing property when there is no will).

It’s important to note that not all rights can be assigned or transferred. Moral rights, which protect an author’s reputation and the integrity of their work, are not transferable. And thanks to the 2012 amendments to the Copyright Act, authors of literary or musical works included in films or sound recordings have an inalienable right to receive royalties, which they can only assign to their legal heirs or a copyright society (more on that later).

For an assignment to be valid, it must meet certain requirements, like identifying the specific work, the rights being assigned, the territory, and the duration. It must also specify both the royalties and other considerations (payments) involved.

There’s also a presumptive five-year term and a restriction to India’s territory if these details aren’t explicitly mentioned in the assignment agreement. So it’s crucial to get the details right and have a legally sound contract in place.

VI. Licensing

In addition to outright assignment, copyright owners can also license their rights to others. Licensing allows the owner to grant specific permissions for certain uses of their work without giving up complete ownership.

There are a few different types of licenses:

  1. Exclusive License: This grants the licensee the sole right to use the work in a specific way, excluding even the original owner from that particular use.
  2. Non-Exclusive License: This allows the owner to grant the same rights to multiple licensees simultaneously.
  3. Compulsory Licenses: These are special licenses granted by the Copyright Board under certain circumstances, like when a work has been withheld from the public or when it needs to be made available to people with disabilities.
  4. Statutory Licenses: These are licenses granted to broadcasters for things like radio and television broadcasts, as well as for cover versions of musical works.

Just like assignments, licenses must be in writing and should specify the work, the rights granted, the territory, and the duration. And if those details aren’t explicitly stated, the license is presumed to be for five years and restricted to India.

Licensing your copyright can be a great way to generate revenue from your creative works without giving up complete ownership. But it’s essential to understand the different types of licenses and to have a legally sound agreement in place to protect your rights and interests.

VII. Termination of Transfers

Okay, so what happens if you change your mind and want to reclaim your copyright after transferring it to someone else? Well, there are provisions for terminating transfers under certain circumstances.

If you’ve assigned your copyright to someone else and the agreement is more than five years old, you can apply to the Copyright Board to have the assignment revoked if you can show that it has become onerous (burdensome) for you. Essentially, if the terms of the agreement are no longer favorable or fair to you, the Board may allow you to terminate the transfer and regain your rights.

Licenses can also be terminated if the licensee fails to comply with the conditions of the agreement. If they violate the terms of the license, you may have grounds to terminate the agreement and revoke their rights to use your work.

And here’s a really interesting fact: If you’re an author who has transferred your copyright to another party, you may be able to terminate that transfer and reclaim your rights after a certain period of time. The specific time frame depends on when your work was initially published, but it can range from 35 to 56 years after the initial transfer.

The process for terminating a transfer is complex and involves serving a written notice to the assignee and submitting a copy to the Copyright Office. But it’s an option that can allow creators to regain control over their works after a significant period of time.

So while copyright transfers may seem permanent, there are mechanisms in place to allow authors and creators to revisit those decisions and potentially reclaim their rights under certain circumstances.

VIII. Recordal of Transfers

Now, let’s talk about the importance of recording copyright transfers with a government agency.

If you’ve registered your copyright with the Copyright Office and it’s been recorded in the Register of Copyrights, you can also record any transfers of ownership. This involves submitting an application to the Registrar of Copyrights, along with the required fee and documentation.

Recording your transfers with the Copyright Office isn’t strictly necessary for the transfer to be valid, but it does provide some significant legal advantages.

First, it puts third parties on notice that there has been a change in ownership. This can help prevent potential copyright infringement disputes down the line, as it establishes a clear record of who owns the rights to a particular work.

Second, in the rare case that conflicting transfers have been made, the agreement that was recorded first takes precedence under the Copyright Act. So recording your transfer can help ensure that your claim to ownership is recognized if any disputes arise.

While it may seem like an extra administrative step, recording your copyright transfers is a good practice that can help protect your rights and interests as a copyright owner or assignee.

While this guide has focused primarily on copyright ownership and transfer in India, it’s worth briefly touching on the process in the United States as well.

In the US, copyright assignment is typically done through a legally binding contract called a “copyright assignment agreement.” This contract outlines the specific work being transferred, the rights being assigned (like reproduction, distribution, adaptation, and performance rights), and the terms and conditions of the transfer.

Just like in India, copyright assignments in the US must be in writing and signed by the original copyright owner (or an authorized agent). And while it’s not strictly necessary to register the transfer with the US Copyright Office, doing so can provide the same legal advantages – it puts third parties on notice and helps establish priority in case of conflicting transfers.

The process of terminating transfers in the US is also similar to India. Authors who have transferred their copyrights to another party can potentially reclaim those rights after a certain number of years, typically 35 years for works created after 1978.

The key is to follow the proper procedures for termination, which involve serving a written notice to the assignee and recording the termination with the US Copyright Office.

While the specifics may vary between countries, the fundamental principles of copyright ownership and transfer are largely similar across jurisdictions. Understanding the legal framework and best practices can help creators and copyright holders protect and manage their valuable intellectual property assets, no matter where they are in the world.

X. Conclusion

Whew, that was a lot of information, but we hope this guide has helped demystify the complex world of copyright ownership and transfer for you.

To recap, we covered everything from determining the eligible owners of copyrighted works (which can be tricky, depending on the circumstances) to the different ways rights can be transferred or licensed. We also delved into joint and collective ownership, the termination of transfers, and the importance of recording your transfers with the appropriate government agencies.

Throughout this guide, we emphasized the importance of proper documentation, legally sound agreements, and understanding the nuances of copyright law. While it may seem like a lot of legalese and fine print, taking the time to get these details right can pay dividends in protecting your valuable intellectual property assets and ensuring that your rights and interests are properly managed.

Remember, your creative works are unique and valuable, and you have the power to control how they are used and monetized. By understanding the principles of copyright ownership and transfer, you can make informed decisions that align with your goals and ambitions as a creator or copyright holder.

And if you ever find yourself in need of expert guidance navigating these complexities, don’t hesitate to seek out legal advice from professionals who specialize in copyright law and intellectual property.

Now go forth and create, innovate, and protect your works like a pro!

For expert assistance in navigating the complexities of copyright ownership, transfer, and other legal matters related to your business or creative endeavors, turn to Filingwala.com. As a leading provider of accounting and legal services, Filingwala.com offers a comprehensive suite of solutions, including trademark registration, company startup registration, income tax, GST, and more. Their team of experienced professionals is dedicated to helping businesses and individuals protect their intellectual property assets and achieve their goals. Visit Filingwala.com today to learn more about their services and how they can support your success.


Q: Can I transfer my copyright to someone else?

A: Yes, you can transfer your copyright ownership to another party through a process called assignment. This involves a written agreement that outlines the specific work, rights being transferred, territory, duration, and any royalties or considerations involved.

Q: What’s the difference between assignment and licensing?

A: Assignment involves a complete transfer of ownership, while licensing allows you to grant specific permissions to use your work without giving up complete ownership. Licenses can be exclusive (granting sole rights to one party) or non-exclusive (allowing multiple parties to use the work simultaneously).

Q: Can I get my copyright back after transferring it to someone else?

A: In some cases, yes. Authors who have transferred their copyrights to another party may be able to terminate that transfer and reclaim their rights after a certain period of time, typically 35-56 years after the initial transfer. The process involves serving a written notice and recording the termination with the appropriate government agency.

Q: Do I need to register my copyright transfer with a government agency?

A: While it’s not strictly necessary for a transfer to be valid, recording your copyright transfers with the Copyright Office (in India or the US) can provide legal advantages. It puts third parties on notice of the change in ownership and can help establish priority in case of conflicting transfers.

Q: Can I transfer my moral rights as an author?

A: No, moral rights are not transferable. Moral rights protect an author’s reputation and the integrity of their work, and they remain with the author even if the copyright itself is transferred to someone else.

GST Issues and Problems Faced by Indians – Get Professional Help to Solve Your GST Problems

gst issues
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India’s Goods and Services Tax (GST) was touted as a revolutionary reform that would simplify the tax system and transform the economy. However, over five years since its implementation, GST still poses major challenges for businesses across the country.

Despite the government’s efforts, tax evasion and fraud remain rampant. Honest taxpayers struggle with complex compliance requirements, mismatched input tax credits, refund delays, and frequent changes in rules and interpretations.

The issues are so pervasive that India is losing billions of rupees in revenue each year to GST evasion. Solving these problems is crucial, not just for businesses’ bottom lines, but for the nation’s fiscal health.

Fortunately, there is a solution – working with a professional GST consultancy like Filingwala.com. By partnering with experienced experts, you can navigate the GST minefield, rectify past issues, and future-proof your compliance. Not only will this give you peace of mind, but it will also help stem the tide of tax evasion and strengthen India’s economy.

The Staggering Cost of GST Evasion in India

The numbers are shocking. According to government estimates, India lost a staggering ₹70,000 crores ($9.1 billion) in potential GST revenue in the 2020-21 fiscal year alone due to tax evasion. That’s almost 10% of the total GST collection!

Tax evasion comes in many forms – under-reporting of sales, issuance of fake invoices, wrongful ITC claims, non-payment of taxes collected, and more. While a small percentage of willful fraud accounts for the biggest losses, a much larger number of businesses make mistakes due to ignorance, lack of resources, or overly complex compliance requirements.

This rampant evasion has hit government revenues hard. Several states face soaring deficits, largely due to shortfalls in GST collections versus targets. At the national level, the tax gap is becoming an impediment to funding critical priorities like infrastructure, healthcare, and education.

There are also broader economic costs. Honest businesses that dutifully comply with GST face higher costs, reduced competitiveness, and cash flow crunches. This hampers growth and investment. Tax evasion creates an uneven playing field and rewards unscrupulous practices. If left unchecked, it can taint India’s reputation as an attractive investment destination.

The government is well aware of the problem and has taken steps to tighten enforcement, upgrade IT systems, and simplify GST. But clearly, more needs to be done. Bridging the massive tax gap requires a multi-pronged approach – smarter policies, better technology, stricter action against fraud, and crucially, handholding of businesses to improve voluntary compliance.

Common GST Issues Faced by Businesses

To solve the GST evasion crisis, it’s important to understand its root causes. Here are some of the biggest pain points that businesses of all sizes grapple with:

Reconciliation Errors & ITC Mismatches

Under GST, businesses can claim input tax credit (ITC) for taxes paid on purchases to offset against their output GST liabilities. However, claiming the correct ITC requires reconciliation of purchase invoices with suppliers’ sales figures in GST returns.

This can be an accounting nightmare due to factors like delayed filing of returns by suppliers, cancelation or revision of invoices, mismatch in HSN/SAC codes, different GSTIN branches, and more. Even a small mistake can lead to huge demand notices and interest liabilities from tax authorities.

E-Invoicing and Compliance Burdens

With a bewildering array of returns (GSTR-1, GSTR-3B, GSTR-9, GSTR-9C, etc.), e-way bills, e-invoicing, and frequent requirement changes, GST compliance has become a hugely time-consuming and expensive exercise. For smaller businesses, arranging the necessary infrastructure, software, and skilled manpower is an uphill task.

Refund Delays and Liquidity Crunches

Due process for GST refunds is often painfully slow. Businesses, especially exporters and those who have reversed excess ITC claims, can face extended delays in getting their funds reimbursed. This creates working capital issues, hampers operations, and hurts competitiveness.

Lack of Clarity and Frequent Changes

The GST law is still evolving, and tax authorities frequently issue new notifications, circulars, and rule changes. This deluge of information can be difficult for businesses to keep up with, leading to confusion, contradictory interpretations, and unintentional non-compliance.

Why You Need a GST Expert

Given the numerous complexities involved, managing GST in-house can be an uphill battle for most businesses. Even organizations with dedicated tax teams can struggle to stay on top of all the nuances.

That’s why an increasing number of companies are turning to professional GST consultants. By partnering with the right experts, you can enjoy several key benefits:

  • Comprehensive guidance on all aspects of GST from registration to returns to audits
  • Prevention of costly errors through proactive reconciliation and compliance checks
  • Customized solutions tailored to your specific needs and challenges
  • Peace of mind knowing your GST affairs are in order and liability risk is minimized
  • Access to up-to-date information on regulatory changes and judicial precedents
  • Relief from operational hassles so you can focus on your core business
  • Potential for major cost savings through efficient ITC management and refund assistance

How Filingwala.com Can Be Your GST Problem Solver

Among the numerous consultants out there, Filingwala.com stands out as a GST solution provider you can truly rely on. Here’s why:

Full-Service GST Consultancy

With Filingwala.com, you get end-to-end support for all your GST needs – from registration, returns, payments and reconciliation, to periodic audits, assessments, appeals, and GST refunds. Our experts assist with any issue, big or small.

Automated GST Filing & Reconciliation

Filingwala.com harnesses the power of technology through its fully automated GST filing platform. It handles everything from data extraction and error checks to invoice matching and generating returns for filing. This minimizes human errors, saves time, and ensures 100% reconciliation.

Experienced Professionals & Customized Solutions

Every client engagement is handled by seasoned chartered accountants, tax practitioners, and legal experts with deep GST domain knowledge. We provide personalized guidance tailored to your specific industry, size, and challenges. This is not one-size-fits-all.

Why spend months trying to wrap your head around GST nuances or hire an inexperienced in-house team? By outsourcing it to the specialists at Filingwala.com, you can rest assured your GST compliance is in safe hands. This frees you up to concentrate on your core business.

Solve Your GST Problems Today

Don’t let GST hurdles hold your business back or make you vulnerable to tax demands and penalties. Take charge of the situation by partnering with Filingwala.com.

With our expertise at your side, issues like ITC mismatches, compliance errors, and refund delays will be a thing of the past. You’ll gain full visibility into your GST liabilities, plug revenue leakages, become audit-ready, and unlock trapped cash flow.

Solving GST evasion requires a multi-pronged approach. While the government strengthens enforcement and systems, businesses must play their part too. By improving compliance through expert assistance, you’ll not only secure your interests but contribute to India’s fight against tax fraud.

Contact Filingwala.com today for a free consultation on how we can support your business. Navigate the GST maze with confidence and peace of mind. Together, we can fix the GST bleed.

FAQs About GST & Filingwala.com

Q1. Why is GST compliance so complex in India?

GST in India has multiple tax slabs, a multitude of returns, complex rules for ITC eligibility, frequent changes in procedures and interpretation, and tech glitches – all of which combine to make compliance challenging. Lack of proper infrastructure and domain expertise also compounds the difficulties.

Q2. Will engaging a GST consultant be very expensive?

Not necessarily. An experienced GST partner can actually end up saving you much more in terms of avoided tax liabilities, penalties, interest, and operational costs. The efficiency gains and peace of mind also make it worthwhile. Look for transparent and flexible pricing models.

Q3. How can I ensure my business data remains confidential with a third party?

Filingwala.com follows stringent protocols around data privacy, confidentiality and security. We sign comprehensive NDAs with all clients and use enterprise-grade tools to protect your information.

Q4. What kind of sector experience does Filingwala.com have?

Our team has handled GST matters for a wide range of industries including manufacturing, services, e-commerce, exports, real estate, healthcare, and more. We customize our approach to fit your specific business needs.

Q5. Does Filingwala.com provide support beyond GST?

Yes, we offer a comprehensive suite of taxation and compliance services covering direct taxes, company law, foreign trade policy, intellectual property, payroll processing, and more. Think of us as your one-stop-shop for all legal and regulatory requirements.

Optimize your GST compliance, control costs, and avoid tax leakages. Contact Filingwala.com today!

How NAV is Calculated in Mutual Funds – India (Net Asset Value)

How NAV is Calculated in Mutual Funds - India
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Introduction – Why NAV Matters for Mutual Fund Investors

Confused by all the financial jargon around mutual funds? You’re not alone. One term that often leaves investors scratching their heads is NAV or Net Asset Value. Yet understanding NAV is crucial if you want to make informed investing decisions.

NAV reflects the real market value of all the securities held by a mutual fund scheme. It’s the price at which you buy or sell units of the fund. So grasping what NAV is, how it’s calculated, and how it impacts fund performance can empower you to invest smarter.

In this comprehensive guide, we’ll demystify NAV in simple, easy-to-understand language. You’ll learn the ins and outs of this essential metric so you can cut through the noise and gain true insight into your mutual fund investments.

What is NAV (Net Asset Value)?

At its core, the Net Asset Value (NAV) represents the market value of all the securities a mutual fund owns. It basically shows what each unit of the fund is worth.

To calculate the NAV per unit, you divide the total market value of the fund’s securities by the total number of outstanding units on a given date.

So if a fund has total assets worth Rs. 300 crore, outstanding liabilities of Rs. 30 crore, and 8 crore outstanding units, the NAV would be:

NAV = (Rs. 300 crore – Rs. 30 crore) / 8 crore units = Rs. 33.75 per unit

The formula for calculating a fund’s NAV is:

NAV = (Total Assets – Total Liabilities) / Total Number of Outstanding Units

As an illustration, let’s consider a balanced mutual fund scheme with the following details:

  • Total Assets: Rs. 150 crore (invested across equity, debt and other securities)
  • Total Liabilities: Rs. 7.5 crore (management fees, operational costs etc.)
  • Total Outstanding Units: 10 crore

To find the NAV:

NAV = (Rs. 150 crore – Rs. 7.5 crore) / 10 crore units = Rs. 142.5 crore / 10 crore = Rs. 14.25 per unit

So in this case, the NAV for the balanced fund is Rs. 14.25 per unit. This is the price investors could buy or redeem units at on that day.

Don’t Judge a Fund Solely by Its NAV

While NAV is an important concept, many investors tend to make the mistake of focusing too narrowly on it. Some think a lower NAV automatically means a cheaper or “better” fund. This is a flawed approach.

The truth is, the absolute NAV figure doesn’t reflect a fund’s quality or future prospects. For example, one fund may have an NAV of Rs. 75 while another has Rs. 375. But that doesn’t inherently make the first fund better or more affordable.

NAV only tells you the current price of one unit of the fund based on its underlying assets. It says nothing about expected returns, risks, costs or how well the fund may perform going forward relative to your goals.

So don’t fall into the trap of selecting funds purely based on NAV. Instead, look at the whole picture – past performance, portfolio fit, expense ratio, fund manager pedigree and more. Consider how the fund aligns with your risk appetite, time horizon and investment objectives. This holistic perspective is key to smart mutual fund investing.

One source of confusion is the distinction between a mutual fund’s NAV and the market price of stocks. With individual stocks, the market price is determined by the forces of supply and demand and driven by factors like earnings reports, analyst sentiment etc.

But for mutual funds, it’s not a demand-supply game. You always buy and sell mutual fund units directly with the fund house at the book value or NAV.

The NAV is determined by the Fund House at the end of each trading day. It takes into account the closing prices of all the securities held by the fund to calculate the true market value and corresponding NAV per unit.

So while stock prices fluctuate based on market sentiment, NAV simply reflects the change in the value of the fund’s underlying assets on a given day. This sets up the key distinction between NAV and market price for stocks.

Calculating NAV – The Full Breakdown

We’ve seen the basic NAV formula, but let’s break down in more detail how funds calculate their daily NAV.

General NAV Calculation

When you invest Rs. 10,000 in a mutual fund with an NAV of Rs. 25 per unit, you receive 400 units (Rs. 10,000 / Rs. 25). So the amount of units you get depends on the NAV.

For example, if you invest Rs. 50,000 each in two hypothetical funds – Fund X and Fund Y:

  • Fund X – NAV of Rs. 15 Units Allotted = Rs. 50,000 / Rs. 15 = 3,333 units
  • Fund Y – NAV of Rs. 30
    Units Allotted = Rs. 50,000 / Rs. 30 = 1,667 units

So for the same Rs. 50,000 investment, you get 3,333 units of Fund X at Rs. 15 NAV, while only 1,667 units of Fund Y at Rs. 30 NAV. But again, this NAV difference alone doesn’t make one fund better.

Daily NAV Calculation

Every day after market close, fund houses calculate the updated NAV to determine unit prices for the next day. Here’s how it works behind the scenes:

  1. Value the Fund’s Total Assets
    Funds invest in a variety of securities like stocks, bonds, commercial paper etc. After markets close, they calculate the total market value of all these assets.
  2. Deduct Liabilities and Expenses Next, the fund deducts all outstanding liabilities like management fees as well as operational expenses incurred in running the fund.
  3. Calculate Net Asset Value With total assets and liabilities known, they use the NAV formula to calculate the updated NAV per unit:

NAV = (Total Assets – Total Liabilities) / Total Outstanding Units

This daily NAV calculation ensures the price you pay reflects the true current market value of the fund’s holdings. It’s a robust, transparent process overseen by SEBI regulations.

How Investment Timing Impacts Your NAV

While NAV is calculated daily, the price you actually pay or receive depends on when your transaction request is received and processed. As per SEBI regulations:

  • For Subscriptions (Purchases): Your money must reach the AMC before the 3pm cut-off to receive that day’s NAV. If funds arrive after 3pm, you’ll get the next day’s NAV.
  • For Redemptions: Requests received before 3pm will get that day’s closing NAV. After 3pm, you’ll receive the NAV of the following business day.

These rules help ensure fairness and prevent any opportunities to game the system based on intraday price changes.

Example Scenario

Let’s say you place an order to invest Rs. 1 lakh in a fund on Monday, March 13th. The order reaches the AMC at 2pm that day.

If your funds are credited to the AMC’s bank before the 3pm cut-off, you will be allotted units at the NAV calculated on March 13th.

But if the funds don’t get credited until after 3pm on the 13th, you’ll receive units at the NAV determined on the next business day (March 14th).

Similar cut-off timing logic applies for redeeming mutual fund units as well. Understanding these rules and timing your investments accordingly can maximize your gains.

The Role of NAV in Assessing Fund Performance

A common mistake is thinking that a lower NAV necessarily signals a cheaper or “better” fund. Many investors assume funds with lower NAVs will outperform higher NAV funds.

But this is a dangerously flawed assumption. A fund’s NAV alone tells you nothing about its underlying quality or future return potential.

For example, take the following two randomly selected funds as of June 30, 2021:

Mirae Asset Large Cap Fund

  • NAV: Rs. 58.97
  • Launch Date: April 1, 2008
  • Assets Under Management (AUM): Rs. 8,743 crore

Tata Digital India Fund

  • NAV: Rs. 30.84
  • Launch Date: December 31, 2015
  • AUM: Rs. 2,890 crore

The Mirae Asset fund has a much higher NAV than the Tata fund. But does that mean it’s a worse investment? Not necessarily.

Comparing NAV and Returns for Two Funds

When we look at the historical returns of both funds, we see they’ve performed quite differently despite the NAV gap:

Fund Name1-Year Returns3-Year Returns5-Year Returns
Mirae Asset Large Cap57.3%14.7%13.9%
Tata Digital India34.6%22.9%24.3%

This underscores that NAV is not an appropriate indicator of a fund’s performance or expected returns. A fund’s NAV simply reflects how the value of its underlying assets have moved over time.

To evaluate funds, you need to dig deeper – look at long-term return history, expense ratios, portfolio composition, fund manager pedigree, and how it fits your own investment horizon and goals.

So avoid the trap of selecting funds based narrowly on NAV. It’s just one small data point that provides limited insight on its own.

Conclusion – Key Takeaways on Mutual Fund NAVs

Navigating the world of mutual fund jargon and metrics can feel overwhelming. But understanding NAV – what it represents and how it’s calculated – is an essential first step.

To recap the key points:

  • NAV (Net Asset Value) shows the real market value of all the securities held by a mutual fund scheme on a given day.
  • NAV is calculated as: (Total Assets – Total Liabilities) / Total Outstanding Units
  • It indicates the per-unit price at which investors can buy or sell units of the fund
  • NAV alone should not be used to judge the quality or future prospects of a mutual fund
  • Investment timing impacts the NAV you receive, so follow SEBI cut-off guidelines
  • Don’t over-emphasize NAV when selecting funds – consider factors like historical returns, expenses, portfolio fit, manager pedigree etc.

By grasping these fundamentals around NAV, you’ll be better equipped to make smarter, more holistic decisions as a mutual fund investor.

Frequently Asked Questions About NAVs

Q: What factors determine a mutual fund’s NAV?

A: The fund’s NAV is based on the total market value of all the underlying securities it owns (like stocks, bonds etc), minus any outstanding liabilities and expenses. NAV changes daily based on fluctuations in the prices of the fund’s assets.

Q: Is a lower NAV always better for a mutual fund?

A: No, this is a common misconception. NAV only indicates the current price per unit, not the fund’s quality or future performance potential. Judging funds solely by their NAV is inadvisable.

Q: How can I check the daily NAV of a fund?

A: Fund houses publish their updated NAVs every day on their websites. Many financial data portals also allow you to track the NAV history of different mutual funds over time.

Q: Can a mutual fund’s NAV be negative?

A: While highly unlikely, it is theoretically possible for a fund’s NAV to turn negative if its liabilities exceed the total value of assets. However, regulations require funds to maintain adequate asset cover to avoid such situations.

Take Control of Your Investments with Filingwala

Understanding concepts like NAV is crucial to becoming a savvy mutual fund investor. But the world of financial regulations, tax calculations and compliance can be equally daunting.

That’s where the experts at Filingwala come in. We’re a one-stop-shop accounting, taxation and legal services firm committed to simplifying finance for our clients. From company registration to income tax filing, GST returns, and trademark support, we offer comprehensive solutions.

Take the first step towards stress-free investing and business management. Visit Filingwala.com today or call us at [9284041780] to book a free consultation. Our team will work closely with you to optimize your financial affairs so you can stay focused on what matters most – achieving your investment goals.

The Ultimate Guide to Provisional Patents in India: Everything You Need to Know in 2024

provisional patent application india

Filing for a patent in India can be a time-consuming and expensive process. That’s why many inventors and companies first file a “provisional patent application” to quickly secure an early filing date for their invention at a lower cost.

A provisional patent application is not a full patent – it lasts for 12 months and allows you to establish a priority date for your patent while giving you time to assess the commercial potential of your invention before spending the time and money to file a full patent.

This comprehensive guide will explain everything you need to know about provisional patents in India – from the benefits to the step-by-step process to costs and beyond. Read on to learn how provisional patents work and determine if a provisional patent makes sense for your invention or idea.

What is a Provisional Patent?

A provisional patent application is a relatively quick and inexpensive way to establish an early effective filing date for your patent in India before your invention is commercialized or disclosed publicly.

The Patent Rules of India provide for filing a provisional specification to provide an early priority date to the invention. According to the Indian Patent Laws, anyone looking to file a complete patent specification may first file a provisional specification. Filing this provisional patent application allows you to obtain an early priority date for your invention.

Key features of a provisional patent application:

  • Lasts for 12 months only
  • Less stringent than full application
  • Establishes early priority date
  • Lower costs than full application
  • Easier and faster to prepare/file
  • Part of complete application process

The provisional patent application will not be examined, so you will not get any intimation from the Patent Office about novelty or inventiveness of your invention. However, you are still able to designate “patent pending” status for your invention during this 12 month period.

After 12 months, the provisional patent application expires and the applicant must file a complete, non-provisional patent application in India within that timeframe to continue the patent process.

Essentially, a provisional patent secures your spot in line while buying you time to perfect your invention, assess its market potential, and raise funding if needed – at a lower initial cost than a full patent application.

Top 5 Benefits of Filing a Provisional Patent in India

1. Quickly Secure Your Filing Date

The patent system in India follows the “first-to-file” system rather than “first-to-invent.” This makes your filing date extremely important – it establishes your priority date and could make or break your chances of getting a patent granted.

Since provisional applications are simpler and faster to prepare than a full patent application, they allow you to quickly get your foot in the door and stake your claim with an earlier effective filing date.

2. Defer Costs to Later Stages

Filing a provisional patent application can cost as little as ₹8,000 in official and professional fees, compared to ₹30,000 or more for a complete application.

Provisional patents let you split upfront costs and spread expenses over the course of the full patent pursuit process. Deferring costs also gives you time to organize financing.

3. Gain Time to Evaluate Commercial Potential

The 12-month pendency period of a provisional patent acts like an intellectual property safety net, buying you time to gauge market reception, build prototypes, court investors/manufacturers, and weigh the best way forward.

You can determine if your invention is commercially viable before sinking more significant funds into the full patent process.

4. Test Technology Before Committing

Along with evaluating business potential, provisional patents give you time to refine and perfect your invention or technology before filing a non-provisional application.

You can use the 12-month period to improve upon your MVP or prototype and ensure your technology is fully ready before investing further.

5. Disclose Invention with Some Safeguards

Seeking manufacturing/funding partners often requires disclosing details about your invention that could compromise novelty if shared publicly.

Provisional patents provide some protection in case any confidential information is inadvertently leaked – third parties would be unable to obtain a patent for your invention in India.

Step-by-Step Process to File a Provisional Patent Application in India

Documents and Forms Needed

Filing a provisional patent application in India requires submitting certain standard forms to the Indian Patent Office, including:

  • Form 1 – Application for Grant of Patent
  • Form 2 – Provisional Specification
  • Form 3 – Statement and Undertaking Regarding Foreign Applications
  • Form 26 – Authorization of Patent Agent (if required)
  • Form 28 – Claiming Small Entity Status (if applicable)

Parts of a Provisional Patent Specification

The provisional patent specification must contain:

  • Title of the invention
  • Description – detailed explanation of the invention

A provisional patent does NOT require:

  • Claims
  • Drawings
  • Abstract

Step-by-Step Filing Process

Follow these key steps to file your provisional patent application in India:

  1. Draft the provisional specification – The specification is the core of your application. Ensure it fully describes your invention.
  2. Prepare requisite forms – Fill out Forms 1, 2, 3, and any other required forms accurately and completely.
  3. Pay the filing fees – The basic government filing fee is ₹1,600 (for small entities) or ₹8,000 (large entities). Add professional fees if using an agent.
  4. Submit application to patent office – File online or submit physical copies to the appropriate Indian patent office branch.
  5. Submit post-filing documents – Provide any additional necessary forms and paperwork within prescribed time limits.

And you’re done! The patent office will provide an application number – your provisional patent application is now on file.

Provisional Patent Costs in India

The costs involved in obtaining a provisional patent in India include:

  • Government fees – ₹1,600 for small entities like startups, individuals, etc. Higher ₹8,000 fee for large entities.
  • Professional charges – Around ₹15,000 on average if using a patent agent or attorney to prepare and file. Can range from ₹6,000 – ₹75,000+ depending on factors like firm experience and location.
  • Responses to office actions – Additional charges if the patent office raises objections or requires clarification.
  • Renewal fees – Not required for provisional patent applications in India.

Overall, expect total costs between ₹10,000 to ₹100,000 for filing and obtaining a provisional patent in India. Cost will vary based on the nature of invention, professional help required, and other factors.

Important Next Steps After Filing Your Provisional Patent

Once your provisional patent application is filed with the Indian Patent Office, be sure to:

  • Submit signed copies of Form 1 within 6 months
  • Provide proof of inventorship if applicant differs from inventor within 6 months
  • Submit Form 26 if a patent agent filed the application on your behalf within 6 months
  • File a complete patent application before your provisional patent expires at 12 months
  • Decide if you wish to file foreign patent applications and meet all requirements within 12 months

Failure to file a complete patent application within 12 months will result in your provisional application being considered abandoned. So be sure to calendar all important deadlines!

Should You Do a Patent Search Before Filing?

Conducting a patent search to uncover any prior art or existing patents covering similar ground as your invention is always advisable before filing any patent application.

A search will help determine if your invention is truly novel and patentable, or if there are existing patents that could prevent your application from being approved. This is useful insight before investing filing and pursuit costs.

While not mandatory, a preliminary patent search – either before or after filing your provisional patent – can inform your decision making and improve chances of getting a full patent granted eventually.

Provisional vs Complete Patent Application: Key Factors to Consider

Deciding between filing a provisional patent first or jumping directly to a complete application depends on several factors:

  • If your invention is still at an early stage, provisional makes sense to secure priority while you develop further.
  • If your invention is finalized, you may want to file a complete application upfront.
  • Provisional patents involve lower upfront costs, allowing you to defer expenses to later stages.
  • A complete application requires claims, abstract, formal drawings – not needed for a provisional.
  • Provisional patents only last 12 months and require a complete application to proceed. A complete application endures independently once filed.
  • Both provisional and complete applications establish your priority date. But foreign filings like a PCT application require a complete application.

Consult with a patent professional to determine the best filing strategy for your specific invention and situation. Here is a comparison summary:

FactorProvisional ApplicationComplete Application
Stage of InventionPreferred when still in developmentPreferred for finalized invention
Initial ExpenseLower upfront costsHigher initial costs
Claims, Abstract, DrawingsNot requiredRequired
Independent ExistenceAbandoned if complete application not filed within 12 monthsEndures independently once filed
Foreign FilingsPriority date established but complete application required for PCT or other national phase filingsPriority date established; can use for foreign filings

FAQs on Provisional Patents in India

How long does a provisional patent last in India?

A provisional patent application remains valid in India for 12 months from the filing date. This one-year pendency gives the applicant time to assess their invention’s viability and decide if they want to pursue a full patent.

Can I extend the term of a provisional patent application?

No, it is not possible to extend the 12-month lifetime of a provisional patent application in India. The applicant must file a complete patent application within this one-year window to continue the pursuit.

Does a provisional patent provide IP protection in India?

While filing a provisional patent establishes an early priority date, it does not provide enforceable IP rights on its own. You must file a complete patent application within 12 months for substantive protection.

Can I claim “patent pending” status after filing a provisional patent?

Yes, applicants can designate their invention as “patent pending” after filing a provisional patent application in India before it expires, or a full patent is granted.

Does a provisional patent application require claims?

No. One key difference between provisional and complete applications is that a provisional patent does not require any claims. This simplifies the filing process.

Can I add new matter later during the complete application?

No, new subject matter cannot be added to the complete application that was not disclosed in the provisional patent application. The complete application must be supported by the original disclosure.

Conclusion & Call to Action

We hope this comprehensive guide has helped demystify provisional patents in India! Here are some key takeaways:

  • Provisional patents allow fast, lower-cost entry to establish an early filing date and secure IP rights for your invention before committing fully.
  • The 12-month pendency provides you with time to evaluate commercial potential and refine the technology or product.
  • Be sure to calendar all post-filing requirements and deadlines to avoid losing rights.
  • Consult experts like those at Filingwala.com to determine if starting with a provisional patent makes sense for your specific situation and goals.

Ready to secure intellectual property protection for your invention idea? The patent specialists at Filingwala.com can provide guidance on whether provisional or complete application suits your needs. Contact them today to evaluate your invention and chart the best patent strategy. Act now to safeguard your innovations!

International Trademark Registration – Procedure, Benefits, and FAQs 2024

international trademark registration india
Image: FreePik


In today’s globalized business environment, obtaining trademark protection in multiple countries is crucial for companies looking to expand internationally. A strong global brand identity establishes credibility, boosts recognition, and deters infringement by competitors.

International trademark registration under the Madrid Protocol offers companies a streamlined, cost-effective solution for registering trademarks in over 100 member territories through a single application. According to filingwala.com, India’s top legal and accounting services provider, international trademark filings from India reached over 1.25 million in 2022.

This comprehensive guide will outline the Madrid Protocol system, benefits of international trademark registration, step-by-step application procedure, and FAQs to help you make informed decisions about protecting your brand globally.

What is a Trademark?

A trademark refers to any word, symbol, color, sound, smell, logo, or combination used by a company to identify its goods and services. It allows customers to distinguish a company’s products from competitors. Trademarks can be registered through national or regional intellectual property (IP) offices.

Registration provides the owner with exclusive rights to the mark and enables enforcement against infringement. Filingwala.com highlights that trademarks are territorial and registration in one country does not confer protection in others. International registration is required for global IP coverage.

Madrid Protocol for International Registration

The Madrid Protocol is an international trademark registration system governed by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO). It enables companies to register a trademark in multiple jurisdictions through a single application filed with their national IP office.

Here are some key features of the Madrid Protocol:

  • Cost-saving compared to separate national applications
  • Single language for application
  • Centralized management through WIPO
  • One set of changes for registered marks
  • Opposition managed directly with each member

Over 100 countries, including the EU, USA, China, Japan and India are members of the Madrid Protocol. This widespread membership makes it an attractive route for global trademark protection.

Pre-Requisites for International Registration

To file for international trademark registration under the Madrid Protocol via India, the applicant must fulfil these conditions as per Indian trademark laws:

  • Be an Indian citizen or company incorporated in India
  • Possess a prior national trademark application/registration in India
  • File the same mark and goods/services as the Indian application
  • Select member countries where protection is desired

Experts at filingwala.com emphasize completing a comprehensive global trademark availability search to ensure no identical or deceptively similar marks exist. This prevents rejection and saves time and costs.

Step-by-Step Procedure for International Registration

Follow these key steps when filing for international trademark registration under the Madrid Protocol:

1. File Indian National Application

Submit an application for trademark registration with the Indian Trademarks Office. This establishes the basis for an international application.

2. Prepare Madrid Application

Complete Madrid Protocol application forms MM2(E) electronically on the WIPO website. Pay handling fees. List countries for registration.

3. Submit to Indian Trademark Office

File the international application and fees with the Indian Trademarks Registry as the office of origin. They will verify and transmit it to WIPO.

4. Formalities Check by WIPO

WIPO checks if all formalities comply with the Madrid Protocol. If approved, the mark is recorded in the International Register.

5. Examination by Each Member

Individual members conduct trademark examinations under their national laws. Acceptance or rejection is communicated to WIPO within 18 months.

6. Registration Certificate

After acceptance by members, WIPO issues an international registration certificate. The mark is now protected in the designated countries.

Experts at filingwala.com recommend engaging a trademark attorney for guidance on documentation and processes to avoid procedural delays or rejection.

Benefits of International Trademark Registration

Here are the major advantages of obtaining an international trademark registration through the streamlined Madrid Protocol:

Cost Savings

Filing one application through WIPO is significantly cheaper than separate national filings in each member territory. Renewals and record changes also require just one filing.

Ease of Management

Centralized administration of the mark through WIPO simplifies international management versus dealing with different national offices.

Enhanced Protection

One registration extends protection to multiple countries where the mark is used or expansion planned, preventing infringement.

Global Brand Presence

International recognition establishes brand identity and deters others from using the mark globally.

Licensing Opportunities

Registered trademarks open up global licensing, franchising and brand extension possibilities.

Facilitates Imports/Exports

International protection combats infringement and unfair competition abroad when exporting marked goods.

With the benefits highlighted above, experts at filingwala.com strongly recommend international trademark registration for brands seeking an overseas presence and market growth. [Call now : 9284041780]

FAQs on International Trademark Registration

Here are answers to some frequently asked questions on the Madrid Protocol for international trademark protection:

How long does the process take?

Typically 12 to 18 months from Indian application to grants in member countries. The Indian filing date is the registration date in all members.

Can the list of countries be expanded later?

Yes, new members can be designated subsequently by filing a request for territorial extension with WIPO.

What are the renewal requirements?

A single renewal at WIPO maintains protection in all members. The term is 10 years from the international registration date.

How are transfers of ownership recorded?

Recording assignment or mergers at WIPO automatically notifies all members rather than separate recordings per country.

Can priority under the Paris Convention be claimed?

Yes, priority can be claimed from earlier national or regional applications if filed within 6 months.

What happens if a member refuses the mark?

The international registration is not affected. Refused members are removed from the national list while other grants remain intact.

Reach out to the experts at filingwala.com for personalized assistance and advice on international trademark registration or any other legal services your business needs.


Obtaining international trademark protection is vital for companies seeking to capitalize on the goodwill of their brand globally. The Madrid Protocol offers an efficient and cost-effective solution through WIPO’s centralized registration mechanism spanning over 100 countries.

Leveraging India’s accession to the Madrid Protocol in 2010, Indian companies can now easily secure their trademarks abroad. By understanding the Madrid application process, pre-requisites, and key benefits, brand owners can make informed decisions on securing their intangible assets internationally.

This article has provided comprehensive information and a step-by-step guide to the Madrid Protocol system. For tailored advice on international trademark registration or other intellectual property protection for your India-based company, consult with the experienced professionals at filingwala.com. Their expertise will help you build a strong and valuable brand identity worldwide. [Call now: 9284041780]

The Top 10 Benefits of Registering a Private Limited Company in India

benefits of private limited company
image: FreePik

India has emerged as the third largest start-up ecosystem globally, with thousands of ambitious young entrepreneurs looking to turn their business ideas into reality every year. Choosing the right type of legal business structure is a crucial first step that can determine how easily a company can access funding, what taxes it pays, the personal liability faced by owners, ease of operations, and more.

Of the options like sole proprietorship, partnership firm, limited liability partnership (LLP), and private limited company; the private limited company is often the best choice for growth-focused startups in India. Compared to proprietorships and partnerships, private limited companies offer significant benefits like limited liability status, tax savings, added credibility, simpler ownership transfer, perpetual existence despite changes in shareholders, a separate legal identity, flexibility in ownership structure, and access to legal resources.

This comprehensive guide will discuss the top 10 most important benefits of registering a private limited company in India. Understanding these advantages is key for new and growing businesses to make an informed decision on choosing a company structure optimized for scalability and investor attractiveness.

Limited Liability Protection

The shareholders of a private limited company are not personally liable for the debts and liabilities of the business. Their liability is limited to the extent of the unpaid amount on the shares held by them in the company. This key benefit gives business owners protection from losing their personal assets like house, car, jewelry etc. in case the company faces losses or legal issues.

Smaller businesses like proprietorships and partnerships do not have this layer of protection, so the owners’ personal wealth is at risk if the business struggles to pay off its financial obligations and lawsuits. Limited liability is the #1 reason why private limited companies are lower-risk and popular among entrepreneurs despite needing more initial registrations.

Credibility and Access to Funding

Unlike proprietorships and partnerships, private limited companies in India need to be registered with the MCA (Ministry of Corporate Affairs). This verification and availability of company details in the public domain builds credibility which banks, financial institutions and investors look for.

Low credibility uninsured businesses find it much harder to secure loans and equity funding essential for growth. Furthermore, many government tenders contracts are only open to registered entities like private limited companies and not to proprietorships or partnerships. Overall, credibility helps access the capital required for scaling up operations.

Taxation Benefits

According to Section 80IAC of the current Income Tax Act, startups registered as private limited companies can apply for a 100% tax deduction on profits for any 3 consecutive years out of the first 10 years since incorporation. This tax holiday available exclusively to private limited company startups helps minimize financial stress in the early struggling years and re-invest more profits back into the business.

Additionally, the lower 25% flat corporate tax rate under section 115BAA makes private limited companies more tax efficient structures compared to higher personal Income Tax slab rates applicable to proprietorships and partnerships. Optimal tax planning is easier with private limited companies.

A key benefit of registering a private limited company is that it exists as a distinct legal entity separate from its directors and shareholders. This means that company’s existence, ownership, and liabilities remain unaffected by any change in directors, shareholders or their personal circumstances. The company can freely enter into contracts and sue or be sued in its own name. This promotes operational stability not available in non-incorporated forms like proprietorships where the proprietor is solely synonymous with the business.

Transferable Ownership

A private limited company facilitates simpler transfer of complete or partial company ownership. As it has a separate legal status, the company’s shares can be transferred to new promoters without affecting operations. The perpetual succession promotes investing in startups, as exit options are straightforward. Non-incorporated entities like partnerships dissolve when any partner exits impacting operations.

Thus, private limited company registration builds an asset in the form of equity shares that are easily transferable through sale, succession, gift or other manners. This gives promoters exit options and business continuity assurances that unincorporated structures lack.

No Requirement for High Paid-up Capital

Earlier private limited companies needed a minimum paid up capital of Rs 1 Lakh, which discouraged cash-strapped founders from incorporating. As of 2022, the concept of mandated minimum capital has been removed for private limited companies. Now startups can register companies with zero capital and issue more shares later after attracting investors. This rescues early-stage ventures facing capital crunch.

Additionally, the Companies Act does not specify any upper limit on the maximum capital that can be raised by a private limited company. The flexible capital raising framework enables substantial equity funding for growth phase companies. Overall, private limited company structure eliminates obstacles related to capital for entrepreneurs while enabling limitless scaling up.

Flexible Shareholder Requirements

The minimum number of members required to register a private company is only 2, while the maximum limit is 200 shareholders. This allows startups to incorporate with co-founders/directors as the only initial shareholders, while providing ample room to dilute ownership at later growth stages after releasing more shares to investors.

Compare this to public limited companies requiring at least 7 initial shareholders, or proprietorships only allowing a single owner. The flexibility in adding shareholders down the line is invaluable for startups aiming for exponential growth.

Lower Compliance Requirements

Statutory audit requirements are lower for private limited companies compared to larger public limited companies. Annual audits are only mandatory for private companies exceeding certain profit, turnover or share capital thresholds specified under the Companies Act 2013. Furthermore, additional requirements like forming a statutory Audit Committee of the Board as applicable to listed companies do not apply on private limited companies.

Relaxed compliances reduce administrative workload and costs for smaller companies. Opting for private limited company structure enables entrepreneurs to focus resources on business expansion rather than excessive regulatory filings.

Perpetual Existence

A key benefit of private limited company form is that the company continues existing perpetually as per law, irrespective of any changes in management or shareholders. Being a separate legal entity, the company’s life is independent of directors or owners. Death, retirement or resignation of directors/shareholders, or their transfer of stake does not threaten the company’s status directly like in the case of proprietorships and partnerships which dissolve on owner departure.

While shareholders and directors may come and go, the company survives. This longevity and permanence makes investing in private limited companies safer. Furthermore, it enables the creation of organizations lasting over generations when founders willingly transfer management/ownership to successors.

As incorporated entities, private limited companies can access legal resources as independent persons including rights to take legal action against parties, defend lawsuits, and approach courts for conflict resolution when required. Unincorporated entities lack these rights legally due to not having separate status from owners.

Additionally, shareholder agreements specifying founder roles, equity splits, voting rights etc. are legally enforceable to resolve disputes smoothly in later years. Overall access to legal recourse reduces business risks over the long term.

The Private Limited Company Advantage

Evaluating the merits of business structures impartially makes it evident why private limited company form is the most logically suitable for serious entrepreneurs in India aiming for rapid, sustainable growth with external investments. Starting off early as a private limited company lays the foundations for absorbing larger equity investments seamlessly in future at higher valuations to turbocharge expansion.

Rather than worrying about cumbersome documentation or renewal fees upfront, founders should focus on the long term advantages ofimited liability status, tax savings, access to funding, operational stability and perpetual succession. The true cost of avoiding private limited company registration often proves detrimental later down the line in scenarios where business assets or personal wealth comes under threat.

With simplified online company registration processes, affordable costs and removal of minimum capital requirements; there are no more excuses to delay private limited company registration. Consult experienced professionals like Filingwala for reliable advice and assistance with streamlined company registration, director appointments, generating incorporation documents, trademark registration and other processes to establish a fully compliant private limited company in India.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q1. What is a private limited company, and why should I consider registering one?

A private limited company is a registered business structure with “Private Limited” or “Pvt Ltd” as part of the company name. It combines the advantages of incorporation like business asset separation from owners along limited liability benefits. Considering registration makes sense for entrepreneurs who want external funding, tax savings, limited personal compliance workload and perpetual succession assurances.

Q2. What are the cost and documents needed for private limited company registration in India?

With the streamlined SPICe process, private limited company registration can be completed fully online at an affordable cost of approximately Rs. 10,000 – Rs. 15,000 inclusive of government fees and professional charges.

The key documents required are:

  • Proof of registered office address (rental agreement, electricity bill etc.)
  • Personal proof of promoters/directors (Aadhar card, passport etc.)
  • Scanned copies of promoters’ photographs
  • Director identification number (DIN)
  • Digital signatures
  • Registered user forms
  • No objection certificates from directors and promoters
  • Incase the initial subscribed capital exceeds Rs. 10 lakhs, financial statements and annual returns of the last year

Additional optional documents are a business commencement proof, declaration of nominee in Form No INC-3, and proof of deposit for subscriber’s shares.

Entrepreneurs can conveniently submit scanned copies of these documents online along with e-forms like SPICe, SPICe MOA, SPICe AOA to complete incorporation within 15-20 days. Professional services like Filingwala further simplify the process using an e-wizard model minimizing hassles at affordable costs.

Q3. How does private limited company registration help in raising funds?

The credibility and trustworthiness of being a registered, compliant private limited company makes investors and lenders more willing to infuse capital. Furthermore, the share transfer flexibility makes investor exit options easier over selling off stakes in proprietorships or partnerships firms. Overall, access to seed funding, angel funds, bank loans, PE/VC capital becomes much easier.

Q4. What is the ownership and management structure of a private limited company?

A private limited company requires at least 2 initial directors listed on the MCA database, who can appoint a CEO/General Manager to handle day-to-day operations. The director(s) guide strategy as a Board along with possible Investor directors in later stages. Shareholder rights like voting power, dividends etc. are linked to percentage stake held.

Q5. What are the potential disadvantages of private limited company registration in India?

More paperwork and recurring compliance costs related to audits, filings, meetings etc. especially for bigger companies are a downside. However, the long term advantages often outweigh the costs as seen worldwide. Opting for professional services can minimize hassles.


In summary, gaining familiarity with the multifaceted benefits private limited companies facilitate for growth aspiring startups helps founders make informed, strategic choices regarding legal business structures. Rather than postpone incorporation, embracing private limited company form early on sets up long term competitive advantages hard to retroactively incorporate later at mature business lifecycles.

If you feel convinced to leverage private limited company advantages, expert services from company registration platforms like Filingwala simplify the entire end-to-end process at affordable costs. You can focus on business growth initiatives with the peace of mind that essential legal, tax and compliance aspects are fully taken care of. Partner with a reliable name like Filingwala with years of expertise assisting thousands of clients across India to set up private limited companies hassle-free and get ready to scale new heights!

The 5 Requirements for Patentability in India: Everything You Need to Know to Protect Your Invention

patentability india

Got a revolutionary new product or technology you want to launch in India? Seeking ironclad protection against copies and duplicates? Like inventors worldwide, filing for a patent in India is one of the smartest moves you can make.

But the patent filing process in India comes with stringent standards. To be granted a patent, an invention must satisfy five core patentability requirements as per the Indian Patents Act 1970.

Understanding these requirements in depth is crucial for inventors who want to safeguard their intellectual property in the Indian market.

This comprehensive guide will break down the five key requirements for patentability in India, offer tips and examples for meeting each one, and explain why hiring an Indian patent agent maximizes your chances of success. Let’s get started!


India’s patent system is designed to protect new inventions that demonstrate a marked improvement over existing knowledge in a technological field. For an invention to qualify for a patent in India, it must satisfy five main criteria:

  1. Novelty
  2. Inventive step
  3. Industrial application
  4. Enablement
  5. Non-obviousness

The bar for patentability in India is set quite high. Each year many applications are rejected for failing to sufficiently establish one or more of the requirements.

Navigating India’s patent application process and trademark registration process is vastly smoother with the guidance of a registered Indian patent agent. But familiarizing yourself with the five requirements will help you assess your invention’s patentability in India and communicate effectively with an agent.

Let’s look at each of the five requirements for patentability in India more closely.

The 5 Requirements for Patentability in India

1. Novelty

The invention must be new and novel compared to existing knowledge and prior art (previously patented or published inventions) in India and globally. It should not be an exact duplicate of already known products, processes, or technology.

Conduct thorough prior art searches in Indian and international patent databases to uncover similar inventions. Extensively document any similar patents or products and highlight what makes your invention completely new. This strengthens your claim to novelty.

For instance, if you have invented a new fishing net, point out specific novel features that distinguish it from existing nets already patented or sold in India. Minor tweaks to known inventions are not considered novel.

2. Inventive Step

The invention should demonstrate an inventive step, or feature, that is non-trivial and not obvious to a person having ordinary skill in that field of technology.

You need to establish that your invention sufficiently moves technology forward compared to the existing baseline. Minor improvements or adaptations to known technology are not considered inventive enough to deserve a patent.

For example, just inserting a GPS chip into an existing vehicle tracking device may be considered an obvious change, not an inventive step. But a vehicle tracker that can auto-alert emergency services in local languages during accidents would likely demonstrate a strong inventive step.

3. Industrial Application

The invention must be industrially applicable and capable of being made or used in some kind of industry.

This means software, algorithms, and business methods can only be patented in India if they have an industrial purpose and application. There should be adequate proof or indication that the invention has industrial utility and value.

For instance, a new e-commerce payment method should be described in context of how it would be implemented and its usefulness to online retailers in processing transactions.

4. Enablement

The invention must be clearly explained in the patent application to enable a person skilled in the same field to sufficiently understand, reproduce, and utilize it.

The application should provide enough materials, context, illustrations, formulas, flow charts, descriptions, and examples so that someone with similar knowledge could reconstruct, test, and use the invention without undue effort.

Omitting key details or being vague could lead to a patent rejection for lack of enablement. Use precise technical language relevant to the field while being as elaborate as possible.

5. Non-Obviousness

Even if the invention is new, inventive, and industrially applicable, it could still be considered too obvious by a skilled person to deserve patent protection.

Overcoming the non-obviousness requirement involves showing how your invention is not simply an aggregation of known techniques or a predictable variation of existing knowledge in the field.

Underline any unexpected, surprising, or counterintuitive aspects of the invention to argue why it moves sufficiently beyond the established baseline to warrant a patent. Bolster your case by having experts provide affidavits testifying the invention represents a non-obvious breakthrough.

Why Work with an Indian Patent Agent

Given the many nuances around meeting India’s patentability requirements, working with an authorized Indian patent agent offers huge advantages:

  • Expertise with Indian IP laws – Agents stay up-to-date on the Indian Patents Act and filing procedures, which differ from other countries.
  • Access to patent databases – Agents have access to sophisticated Indian patent search tools and databases helpful for uncovering relevant prior art.
  • Assessing patentability – They can evaluate your invention against requirements and advise if pursuing a patent seems viable.
  • IP protection strategies – Agents determine optimal types of patents and claims to maximize protection.
  • Drafting expertise – They know how to skillfully draft the necessary descriptions, claims, and application materials.
  • Communication skills – Experienced in corresponding with the Indian Patent Office to overcome objections and negotiate successful outcomes.
  • Cost savings – Hiring an expert from the start minimizes costly revisions and office actions down the road.
  • Objectivity – As third parties, agents provide impartial guidance inventors often lack being too close to their work.

Do not let worries about affordability deter you from seeking professional assistance. Robust patent protection pays for itself many times over by safeguarding your exclusive rights to commercialize a novel invention in India.

Patent Application Process in India

Here is a simplified step-by-step overview of the standard patent application process in India when working with a registered Indian patent agent:

  1. Initial consultation – Discuss invention background, sign engagement agreement, provide materials.
  2. Drafting patent application – Agent researches prior art, drafts complete application including descriptions, drawings, claims.
  3. Filing application – Agent reviews final application, files it with the Indian Patent Office.
  4. Examination – Patent office examines if requirements are satisfied. Issues examination report.
  5. Responding to objections – Agent modifies application as needed to overcome identified deficiencies.
  6. Grant of patent – If all requirements met satisfactorily, patent is granted.

The total process usually takes 3-5 years currently. Granted patents provide exclusive rights for 20 years from filing date.


Patenting an invention in India requires methodically demonstrating satisfaction of all five requirements – novelty, inventive step, industrial applicability, enablement, and non-obviousness.

Spend time upfront understanding the requirements and finding relevant prior art through searches. Then engage an authorized Indian patent agent to expertly craft and file the strongest application possible.

Their knowledge and experience with Indian patent law and the patent office’s procedures will prove invaluable to ultimately securing robust patent protection in India.

And of course, for support with the accounting, legal, and taxation aspects of growing your business in India, the expert team at Filingwala is always happy to help!